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Another Fryderyk was awarded in to the CD of Karol For 14 years its members have been mastering their vocal skills and performing. Equivalence and congruence 14 Types of syntactic contrast 15 Exercises 16 CHAPTER II: WORD-FORMATION AND THE LEXICON IN CONTRAST 17 2.


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Warsaw: WSiP. Pieter J. Rosinska Z. Rubinsztejn S. Siek S. Sliwerski W. Strelau J. Sliwerski B. Swida H. Tarnowski J. Tomaszewski T. Witkowski L. Szarota, M. Fine, A. Asch Eds. Barnes, G. Warszawa , pp. Meanwhile, the spheres of life in which women with disabilities encounter additional difficulties were already defined at the turn of the s and s in the work of Jo Campling4, an attorney and a person without disabilities, one of the first people to become an active and professional ally and advocate of people with disabili- ties.

According to Campling, the areas of life which significantly shape the experience of women with disabil- ities are: interpersonal relationships, sexuality and self-image, men- struation and menopause, contraception, pregnancy and mother- hood, the economic situation, clothes, home life, education and employment.

The child-parent relationship and vice versa are important contexts for the development of advocacy attitudes towards the rights and issues of people with disabilities, often accompanied by extensive scientific reflection and an original concept of disability. This trend includes the works of e. Lennard J. Greaves, Work and disability: some aspects of the employment of disabled persons 7 in Great Britain, British Council for Rehabilitation of the Disabled, London In any of the life stories of women with disabilities presented in the Campling study, we find key issues both from 40 years ago, when the stories were written, and today, when issues such as sexuality and motherhood, personal freedom and decision-making autono- my, medical care and social support are the spheres that still reduce a woman with a disability to a person who has incomplete rights, who is limited rather by ablistic principles and social formations than her state of health and physical fitness.

The gynaecologist wondered how it was socially possible for me to bring up a child, and social services merely stood on the side-lines, not offering any practical help but making me feel they were wondering how I would maintain myself and my child in the community, waiting for the first opportuni- ty to take my child away from me. I went so far as to ban the social worker from the house after my baby was born because they had been so unhelpful to me during my pregnancy and I did not wish to support their professional voyeurism.

As a result, a complex, fairly cross-sectional picture of experiences was obtained, authorising the authors of the study to draw conclusions and formulate recommendations. I asked him [the doctor] about the possibility of getting pregnant, what it would be like, asked him to assess the real chances and so on. He said that I was crazy and in general, that in my case it is absurd that I should want to be pregnant, have a baby, because I am in a wheelchair, and you have to do ultrasound tests all the time and he basically yelled at me.

After this visit, I immediately looked for another gynaecologist. How can it be when it is the very reason used to justify the oppression we are battling against? How can it be when pain, fatigue, depression and chronic illness are constant facts of life for many of us? Hughes, K. Crow, Renewing the social model of disability, [in:] J. Morris ed. Warszawa , p. This approach also makes it possible to effectively incorporate new threads into anal- yses of the situation and experiences of women with disabilities.

Violence against women with disabilities or their economic situa- tion, which will be outlined for further consideration, are not, of course, new phenomena in a chronological sense, but are examples of further social issues marginalised both in general disability stud- ies and in feminist studies.

It is also important to stress that the ap- propriate empowerment of these issues is correlated with a signifi- cant change in general studies on disability, which has been associated with a move away from analyses focused solely on the experiences of people with disabilities from the countries of the rich North Europe and the United States and the recognition of the completely different specificity of the problems of this group of people in the countries of the global South.

Once again, the discourse on the situation of women with disabilities has been placed at the intersection of their exclusion from both feminist discourse and male-dominated disability stud- ies. Patriarchalism, castration and classism of the Indian society affect not only the everyday situation of women with disa- bilities, but also characterise the movement of people with disabili- ties in India, which further excludes women with disabilities from more active forms of fighting for their rights.

Theorising ablism and disablism, Routledge, 20 London For this reason, feminist activity in India repeats the pattern of the particular activity of educated and economically in- dependent women, who are also victims of violence, but who are able to oppose negative phenomena and develop campaigns in de- fence of their rights.

Marques et al. The staff of these institutions usually do not have any competence to respond to the specifics of people with disabilities especially intel- lectual disabilities. In the case of institutional care, there are no clear procedures for preventing and reporting violence, and accord- ing to numerous studies, the perpetrator is most often an immediate family member or an employee of the care institution.

The list of negligence and omissions concludes the point on the lack of adequate care and support for the sexual and repro- ductive health of women and girls with disabilities. Economic figures leave no doubt that the situation of women varies according to where they live.

Iceland, Norway and Finland are at the top of the ranking of countries with the smallest inequalities in this area with issues of political participation, access to education and health care added to the economic area , while the countries of the East Asia-Pacific region have the worst situation, and it will take at least years for them to equalise the position of women in society.

Priestley ed. Report , World Economic Forum, Geneva Report , World Economic Forum, Geneva , p. References Barnes C. Morawski, Wyd. Campling J. Charlton J. Crow L. Fine M. Philadelphia Garland-Thomson R. Ghai A. Priestley Ed. Global Gender Gap. Goodley D. Theorising ablism and disablism, Routledge, London Hughes B.

Lipski A. Marques L. Przychodzi baba do lekarza. Sherry M. Wilk P. However, the specific nature of the everyday experience of people with intellectual disability is still neglected and unrecognised. The aim of this article is to show the concept of masculinity from the perspective of men with intellectual disability. The research is placed in the stream of qualitative research using a case study as a method. The subject of the research covers the statements of men with intellectual disability concerning masculinity.

The analysis of the research material obtained from 12 interviews allowed for the identification of four types of masculinity. It allows for the identification, classification and categorisation of people into women and men. It is necessary to build knowledge about oneself, ideas, but also to design the future.

It is worth noting that in considerations about people with intellectual disability, the imper- sonal form is most often used, and after all the sex of these people does not disappear after the diagnosis and is undoubtedly one of the main elements of building their identity. Therefore, it is necessary to thoroughly explore the specific nature of everyday experience of people with intellectual disability and include it in the discourse of special andragogy.

In each of these perspectives, the fundamental issue includes the differences that exist between the sexes. It is assumed that the term describes the features and behaviours considered appropriate in a given culture for men or women. As such, it constitutes a social label that encompasses both characteristics assigned to a given sex by a society and those that people perceive in themselves.

Brannon, Psychologia rodzaju. In modern science at least four types of gender are distinguished: biological, psychological, social and cultural one. These differences, mainly related to body structure, include anatomical, hormonal and reproductive functions and are independent of social factors. Psychological gender is shaped by a combination of biological and social factors.

The results of nu- merous scientific studies carried out in the last two decades3 have resulted in significant changes in the perception of psychological gender. Donnelly, J. Sandra Lipsitz-Bem, who reject- ed the division into male and female attributes, significantly verified the concept of psychological gender. The author assumed that femi- ninity and masculinity constitute two separate personality dimen- sions and are not in opposition to each other.

On the other hand, social gender is a set of roles, expectations, stereotypes, defined as masculine or feminine, somehow built around biological features. The World Health Organization WHO defines social gender as the socially created roles, behaviour, activities and attributes that a given society deems appropriate for men and wom- en. Social gender, unlike biological gender, is contextual and shaped differently in individual societies.

The second feature of gender, or socially shaped sex, is its changeability over time. There are numer- ous examples — from the prohibition of higher education or voting rights for women in force at the end of the 19th century to the recent- ly changed regulation about dependency leave which could not be taken by men in Poland.

Gender, as a social category, imposes be- longing to a specific social group consistent with the gender. It affects the ways of interaction, communication, personality shaping and the functioning of an individual in society. The adoption of gender sche- mas largely depends on socialisation, and therefore on the extent to which gender differences were emphasised in the upbringing process and the extent to which the child learned to be a woman or a man.

And broadly understood social roles, which are often clearly assigned to one gender, may be consid- ered appropriate. Gender plays an important role in shaping this image, to which specific behaviour, features and social roles are assigned. These categories are developed around the age of three years and are largely resistant to changes.

Cros, H. In: Wojciszke B. Huston, The development of sex typing: themes from recent research, Developmental Reviev, 5, , pp. Nijakowski, J. Szacki, M. It is only a form of social stigma and symbolization which of these traits are perceived as masculine and feminine. Miluska, P. Boski Ed. Masculinity from the perspective of men with intellectual disability 51 of processing information about the environment and engage in behaviour consistent with the stereotype of their own gender than androgynous and agender people.

Adopting the perspective of representatives of the interactionist and ethnomethodological trend in sociology, it is therefore possible to state that gender is shaped in interactions and is a social status that must be achieved; that the gender difference is produced by social institutions by e. During development, a typification process takes place, as a result of which an individual develops a specific type of gender identity, manifest- ed by its identification with a specific gender.

Garfinkel, Studia z etnometodologii, Warszawa, ; E. West, D. Gender, as the most visible, distinctive and universal trait, is a par- ticularly good basis for creating stereotypes. Stereotypes are sets of beliefs about the traits possessed by representatives of a given catego- ry — in this case: the category of a woman or a man.

They strengthen the ordering function of social roles that determine the behaviour of group members and become the binding standard for their regula- tion. The influence of roles associated with gender on behaviour is explained by the concepts of normative influence, the concepts of self-fulfilling prophecy and the different variants of the role.

The prevalence of gender role stereotypes and their regula- tory power is determined by the type of social organisation. Gender schemas provide patterns of expectations about behaviour, interests, traits, skills, and people generally behave in ways that are consistent with them. As a result, these individuals strictly adapt to the prevailing gender stereotypes.

On the other hand, the more pe- ripheral the position of the schema the less significant it is , the more the individual is able to demonstrate flexibility in behaviour depending on the situation, which is characteristic of androgynous people. Research on masculinity and femininity The beginnings of interest in gender are dated at as late as the end of the 19th century18 and are associated with research on intelli- gence.

Bem, who introduced the concept of androgyny as two independent dimensions of masculinity and femininity. In the s, the concept of gender as a social category was also initiated, and in the s a number of theories describing gender at the interpersonal level, or at the level of behaviour per- ceived as appropriate for a given sex, were developed.

They grew out of the continuation of feminist movment, and research conducted from this perspective, sought to deepen the analysis of masculinity and the male experience as socially, culturally, and historically conditioned issues. The s brought a critique of the traditional male role and its associated stereotypes. Fundamental differences between the genders are assumed here.

Supporters of the minimalist approach perceive little significant difference be- tween the genders they concern some cognitive abilities and emo- tional characteristics and suggest that it is society that contributes to their formation. However, meta-analyses conducted in recent years have shown the validity of the recognition of gender as a pre- dictor of differences in, for example, the abilities of men and women.

Masculinity — traditional and modern approach Masculinity is a concept that has evolved over the centuries, both in terms of its perception and implementation. With the trans- formation of societies, the models of both masculinity and femininity changed, but they have always been connected with the perfor- mance of specific roles. It is based on the dualism of gender roles, the asymmetry of male and female characteristics. It requires a man to dominate other men, women and children.

It means the necessity to suppress feelings and emotions. Auderska, H. Skorupka Ed. Masculinity from the perspective of men with intellectual disability 55 ognising these values as fundamental in creating a new social order. It contains the concepts of androgyny and self-development under- stood as striving for full humanity.

This paradigm allows a man to display both masculine and feminine characteristics. Their life motto is collaboration, not domination, they are partners for women and children. The man is the head of the household, the breadwinner of the family. Male domination is understood here as supremacy in the physical, mental and social spheres, including the economic one.

The traditional male type is physically strong, decision-making and has the highest position in the family space. He includes no elements of femininity, and his image is built in a way to be its opposite. He is a human being with strong emotional control, rational and not showing weakness.

He negates in themselves everything that is perceived as feminine in culture, building his image of a strong, self-confident, competent and dominant person. Generally speaking, it can be said that the image of a man has been created over the years in opposition to the image of a woman. The traits attributed to men are those that women lack. In contrast, the modern paradigm emphasises the complementa- rity of genders, emphasising the equality and partnership of women and men.

Modern masculinity diverges more and more from the stereotypical image that has never before associated it with the ethos of beauty. Physical beauty of a man begins to be a feature of their masculinity, which contradicts the stereotypical vision of mas- culinity. Siewicz23 writes, the pressure of idealism that is characteristic of modern times makes a man begin to search for his identity closer to the identity of women. The gender blurring con- fronts men with the problem of determining their own masculinity.

He is a regular visitor of clubs, discos and beauty salons. He cares a lot about his physical appearance, often decides to do make- up, dye his hair, wear jewellery. He dresses fashionably, some- times even eccentrically. He is self-confident and expresses his emotions openly; — a lumbersexual man from English word lumberjack — he is hypermasculine, has facial hair, is not afraid of technical and technological challenges, is resourceful.

He has all the traits stereotypically attributed to men. He does not focus all his attention on physical appearance, he does not lament over his own fate; — a princesexual man — elegant, stylised as a prince from a fairy tale. Masculinity from the perspective of men with intellectual disability 57 — a Macho man — he is associated with the sexual plane: he is a symbol of sexual potential; combining domination with phal- locentrism and at the same time with aggression, risk and fear; — a Playboy man — focused on consumption and treating women in this way.

It should also be emphasised that in the modern era, mass media are an important tool of cultural influence, so a significant part of knowledge about contemporary men is shaped by what can be watched on the Internet and on television. According to Polish research, the following appear among the new models of masculinity — in family life, a partner and guardian for a child next to the traditional role of breadwinner and head of the household , — a partner or a single in a relationship with a woman next to the traditional macho and playboy model , — in a homosexual relationship with a man next to the tradi- tional rival or friend model , — in the professional sphere, a model based on the traditional concept of typically masculine characteristics and attributes of a businessman, politician and athlete.

The author believes that there is no one type of masculinity with fixed determinants or parameters — masculinity has many constructs, var- ied depending on e. Moreover, the author drew atten- tion to the hierarchy of masculinity and distinguished its three levels. The first is the cultural ideal of masculinity that the vast majority of men in a given society strive for. It is rarely achieved, and it is de- fined by the traits of physical appearance muscular, strong figure , heterosexuality, as well as high social and economic position, authori- ty and power hegemonic masculinity.

This is the type of man who brings others under his control. Representatives of this model are supporters of patriarchalism and the dominant model of masculinity, but for various reasons, e. Men representing the type of complicit masculinity are husbands, fathers, local activists. Connel, J. Messerschmidt, Hegemonic masculinity. Masculinity from the perspective of men with intellectual disability 59 nating the rest of gender categories.

According to Connell, non- heterosexual men occupy the very bottom of the hierarchy of mascu- linity, or they constitute masculinity that is subordinate and most excluded as a result of symbolic connection. The works of Connell, as a precursor of the theory of masculini- ty, were also followed by numerous critical studies. Years later she verified, supplemented and developed some of them.

He distinguished two types of masculinity: the first — traditional one, called orthodox masculinity, is characterised by homophobia and misogyny. This type enhances heterosexism and supports patriar- chy. The second type is inclusive masculinity.

Inclusive masculinity, according to this theory, does not compete for hegemony. It includes men who are able to demonstrate both emotional and physical intimacy. Eric Anderson brought to mascu- linity research the importance of recognizing the equality of masculi- ne types.

According to this approach, men — although more and more often undertake tasks that were considered non-masculine — still maintain their privileged position. Research on hybrid masculinities suggests that hybrid masculinity distances itself from traditional masculine norms while recreating and enhancing hegemonic masculinity. Another type of masculinity described in the literature includes caring masculinities, the definition of which is primarily attributed to Karin Elliott.

The main characteristics of caring masculinities are: rejection of domination, adoption of care-related values, under- standing of the interdependence of individuals and their relation- ships. There are various ways of practising such masculinity, e. Protective masculinity is an alternative to hegemonic masculinity. According to Karla Elliott, caring masculinity rejects the pursuit of domination, assigning high value to positive emotions. Providing care allows men to feel responsible, competent and happy.

Research on the masculinity of people with intellectual disability Issues related to the gender of people with disability have gained the interest of scientists only recently. As written by Wilson et al. Research that is conducted in the area of intellectual disability and sexuality most often focuses on the sexuality of people with intellectual disability mainly in the context of their needs and on parenthood more often motherhood than fatherhood. Their results often show that intellectual disability does not have to exclude the possibility of fulfilling the role of a partner and father, and often even reveal the ability to fulfil them in an atmosphere of love and support.

It should be emphasised that in recent years there has been an increase in interest in these issues. This is the right approach, also given the deeply entrenched social stereotypes and prejudices. Wilson, T. Parmenter, R. Stancliffe, R. Masculinity from the perspective of men with intellectual disability 61 norm and beyond, to the benefit of emphasising common features can also be observed. Mejnar- towicz34, R.

Pichalski35, B. Antoszewska, K. Kijak37, and among foreign researchers by, among others, L. Conod L. Ser- vais38, N. Wilson et al. Rushbrooke C. Murray S. In: M. Aouil Ed. Rodzina i praca, Bydgoszcz, , p.

Graban Ed. XII, No 1 vol. Conod, L. Servais, Sexual life in subjects with intellectual disability. Shuttleworth, From diminished men to conditionally masculine: sexuality and Australian men and adolescent boys with intellectual disability.

Rushbrooke, C. Murray, S. Banks41, C. Friedman et al. Llewellyn, D. Mayes H. Borowska- -Beszta and U. However, there is still little research that explores the masculinity of people with intellectual disability from their own perspective. Methodology of own research The research discussed in this article is placed in the stream of qualitative research using a case study as a method.

Friedman, C. Arnold, A. Owen, L. Sexuality and Disability, 32 4 , pp. Llewellyn, R. Mcconnell, H. McConnell, H. Past, Present and Futures. Mayes, H. Masculinity from the perspective of men with intellectual disability 63 understand the concept of masculinity of adult men with intellectual disability.

The goal is inspirational46 and is related to the knowledge gap in the field of masculinity research. Yin distinguishes three types of case studies — explanatory, descriptive, and exploratory one. A start- ing point for the present study was the last type aimed at identify- ing and describing the phenomenon under study. The applied tech- nique is the free-form, partially guided interview48, while the tool includes the instructions for the interview.

The analysis covered 12 interviews with men with intellectual disability, aged from 20 to 57, diagnosed with moderate intellectual disability. They all had preserved verbal communication. The inter- views lasted from one to three hours and were of different dynamics and course. The respondents stayed in the following social environ- ments: — nursing home 5 interviews — communal home of mutual aid 5 interviews — family home 2 interviews.

Results of the study The analysis of the research material allowed for the identifica- tion of 4 types of masculinity. Yin, Studium przypadku w badaniach naukowych. Somatic disorders and ailments occupy a central place in the self-image. The re- spondents perceive themselves from the angle of their disabil- ity, through the dysfunctions of their body.

Functioning is simplified here to the disease and the treatment process. They are the main area of interest, and other aspects seem to be treated as unimportant and often neglected. A person man is reduced here to the biological limitations and possibilities of the body, and disability is always identified with a disease. This type of man differs from the dominant male model. Men of this type cannot fulfil the male role as they imagine e.

The sense of dissatisfac- tion with life, and the inability to fulfil plans and dreams are visible. Among this type of men, the effects of long-term help- lessness training are visible, which resulted in a lack of life ini- tiative. The striking element in the statements is the feeling of considerable dependence on others parents ordered, the girl wanted, the doctor decided. Agency is replaced here with a feeling of helplessness and inability to accept their fate.

Pain and suffering are its visible manifestation. The man feels dis- advantaged and sometimes worse than others. This sense of dependence covers many spheres, including intellectual one. The respondents rarely perceive their contribu- tion to the possibility of changing the situation, e. The respondents show knowledge about real restrictions and prohibitions. The sense of prohibitions and or- ders restricting them violates their visible needs for fulfilling so- cial roles, including those related, in the opinion of the respond- ents, to gender.

The sense of agency is located somewhat outside the respondents, or outside, and this results in a sense of inability, helplessness and the need to accept the fate. However, this attitude is not without emancipatory ele- ments. The respondents often feel competent and able to act as a parent or partner. Being a man is not a moot point here. Masculinity appears here as a psychophysical unity, or it is important for the respondents both in the physical aspect and in the sense of a personal trait, and is an emanation of strength, which is the basic element in constructing their mas- culinity.

It is also part of certain skills, e. The na- ture of this type of masculinity is the superior position of a man, which is manifested in controlling the situation, con- trolling others, but also self-control controlling emotions and the forms of their expression. Masculinity turns out to be the driving force here. The superior position means not showing signs of weakness. This variability most often re- sults from the context of the situation to which the respondent relates Sometimes I am the man, well, if it is needed to bring something, or to do other things, for example.

In the research material, it is also possible to find examples of the identifica- tion of the respondents with their own gender and, at the same time, questioning it I wear trousers and I have a suit, I guess I am a man, but girls also do, so do not know.

It can be assumed that this is the result of disharmony between the role of the dependent person and the conscious components of identity. In this type, the aversion to the masculine role is sometimes visible, which may result from humiliation that the respondent suffered earlier in life, which was caused by men. Experience particularly important for the formation of masculinity of the respondents included: the feeling of disabil- ity, dependence, being weaker, inferior, lack of love, and oc- curred already in childhood.

Strategies for dealing with this experience are usually related to the subordination to the envi- ronment, obedience, and accepting the views of others. Summary Masculinity constitutes an important identification category for the respondents. All respondents used a rather consistent conceptu- al system to describe themselves and their own gender. The study revealed important threads related to the biog- raphy of the respondents.

The main components for defining masculinity were physical appearance, physical attractive- ness or its lack , interpersonal relationships, and social roles. Intel- lectual disability appears here primarily as a limitation of the life opportunities of the respondents. The sense of being inferior activates the mechanisms of cognitive distortion, including the area of reduced agency.

The socially functioning model of mas- culinity and the role of the passive recipient make it difficult or even impossible to perceive the intellectually disabled in terms of cultur- ally understood masculinity. The problem of gender identification is even more complicated here than in the case of people with other types of disability.

It is mainly influenced by the social environment in which the person was brought up. The intellectually disabled are largely deprived of the possibility of making important life decisions. Their sexuality is denied, compared to children, depriv- ing them of self-determination. Due to the infantilisation of the rela- tionship, the inability to fulfil the role of husband and father, the very process of identification with the gender role is disturbed. All the requirements constituting the social construct of masculinity are extremely difficult to meet by men defined as intellectually dis- abled.

The aim of this article was to draw attention to the fact that the experience and problems of men with intellectual disability vary. The specific nature of the needs of this social group and the prob- lems related to the masculine gender should be recognised. The presented research is to be not so much an answer as a question about the identity of a man with intellectual disability, and an at- tempt to provoke reflection on the perception of masculinity in the face of this disability.

As in the case of other social groups, it is not a homogeneous group. References Antoszewska B. XII, no. Apanowicz P. Arcimowicz K. Auderska S. Badinter E. Banks, N. Bem-Lipsitz S. Zimbardo ed. Biddulph S.

Brannon L. Chodorow N. Connell R. Rethinking the concept. Masculinity from the perspective of men with intellectual disability 69 Cross S. Donnelly K. Dulko S. Friedman C. Garfinkel H. Huston A. Kijak R. Kessler S. New York Aouil ed. Rodzina i praca, Wydawnictwo Akademii Bydgoskiej, Bydgoszcz Kwiatkowska A. Boski ed. Mayes R. Mandal E. Mejnartowicz D. Graban ed. Melosik Z. Miluska J. Ostrowska A. Pichalski R. Rubacha J. Rushbrooke E. Siewicz K. Strykowska M. Suwada K. Wilson N. Shuttleworth R.

Masculinity from the perspective of men with intellectual disability 71 Wojciechowska Z. Wojciszke B. Yin K. The article presents the results of qualitative research on the opinions of female pedagogy students suffering from depression on the social determinants of their illness, their difficulties studying and the availability of sup- port. Studies have shown that students suffering from depression have a strong need to obtain specialist psychological support at the university.

KEY WORDS: depression, students, pedagogy, studies, academic space, support Introduction Depression is a civilizational disease that affects an increasingly large population. It is becoming widespread across all age groups and communities. The sense of uncertainty about finding a job, rising requirements, and the social pressure related to the excess expectations all con- tribute to mental disorders. Franczak2 has observed that the time of university education may come with the heightened risk of various mental problems, including some early episodes of mental disorders.

XXIX, 1, pp. Suwalska, A. Suwalska, M. Jaworska, N. Morawska, P. Morga, J. Everyday life of pedagogy students suffering from depression 75 What points to the need for investigating the group of students of educational studies are the results of research projects by M.

Kiejna8, who have demonstrated that students of educational studies are part of the individuals with heightened sus- ceptibility to depression. Depression incidence depends on the adopted diagnostic crite- ria, research tools used and the age of respondents, specifically the year of university education under investigation. Rosal and associates9 established that the incidence of depression among first- year students is similar to that in the general population of young people.

However, the rate of those with depression among students rises as they advance in their university programmes much more than within the comparative group. Many factors influence the oc- currence of depression in students. The main ones are stress, anxiety and mood disorders associated with frequent lack of sleep, poor eating habits, irregular physical activity, high self and social expec- tations and insufficient support systems.

Students are at a point in their lives where they need to make choices, make binding life deci- sions. Rosal, I. Ockene, J. Ockene, S. Barrett, Y. Ma, I. Jakubiec and others, the inability to cope with the severe stress that affects students, as well as numerous anti-health habits, may be manifested by psychological disorders. It is therefore so important to develop various forms of support for stu- dents with depression. Individual academic communities recognize the nature of the problem and have been introducing various pro- jects related to mental health and emotional support on their own.

Some universities have Bureaus for the Disabled, which also seek to support people with mental disorders. Justification of the research position, research methodology and specification of respondents The results of the qualitative research presented in the article were delivered in — Mojs, K. Warchol-Biederman, W. Psychology , 3 2 , pp. Jakubiec, D. Kornafel, A. Cygan, L. Everyday life of pedagogy students suffering from depression 77 availability of psychological support at the university.

Four inter- views have been conducted with students of educational studies as part of this project. The interviews were conducted on the uni- versity premises. These were extensive statements that revealed personal, subjective experiences of the respondents. Attempts to explore subjective experiences require the researcher and the re- spondent to explore the phenomena thoroughly and study them in all their complexity. Each of the interviews had the same structure, based on the assumptions of the narrative interview methodology.

With this kind of research pro- ject, the respondent has an opportunity to trace some of their mem- ories; this lets him or her reflect on how they assign value to certain phenomena and how they interpret reality. Pilch, T. In: D. PWN, Warsaw , pp. PWN, Warszawa , pp. Demetrio, Autobiografia. Terapeutyczny wymiar pisania o sobie. Then milestones in individual biographies, turning points or critical events were identified, and categories common to most of the narratives were determined.

The interviews showed the complexity, diversity and ambiguity of these categories. The research group consisted of four students suffering from depression. Each of them received a positive clinical diagnosis of the depressive disorder. Three stu- dents were using professional support — psychotherapy, and one additionally used pharmacotherapy.

All of them are students of educational studies. Kinga has been suffering from depression for two years. She is 23 years old and is going to graduate this year. She also works as a teacher at one of Warsaw kindergartens. She started to think she might have depression when her symptoms grew more intense ear- ly in the second year of her university education.

Her friends urged her to use psychological counselling. For a year and a half now, she has attended weekly therapy sessions. She believes that she has already experienced the worst point in her depression. The other respondent is year-old Agata. She currently studies education and has previously studied sociology.

She says she has experienced three depressive episodes. During the second one, she did not seek such assistance, mainly for financial reasons. During the inter- view, she was managing a crisis related to the third episode. Waniek ed. The names of the students have been altered. Everyday life of pedagogy students suffering from depression 79 The third respondent was Marta 23 years old — a third-year student of educational studies.

Anxiety disorders are her main is- sue. She seeks to combat them primarily with pharmacology. In the past half a year, her anxiety disorders came to be accompanied by depressive symptoms. She has recently started using psycho- therapy. Karolina 22 years was the fourth student participating in this research project. She is about to complete the second year of her university education.

She has been suffering from depression for the last four years and has used counselling for three. Social background of depression All of the students taking part in this project are aware of their disorders and do not use the repression mechanism when discuss- ing it. However, none of them unequivocally refers to their disorder as depression.

They use both scientific and colloquial terms to dis- cuss their depressive episodes. These include: an episode, a phase, sadness, an emotional trap, the strong desire to do something yet not being able to, a metaphor of a jar about to crack. Discussing the circumstances behind their depression, the stu- dents did not refer to biological causes; instead, they pointed to various factors that they found out either themselves or during therapy.

Each of the respondents has been exposed to one or more strong stressors. These included factors related to studying as well as those unrelated to studying nor academic life. However, they have mostly touched upon studying-related matters and pointed to the following circumstances: moving to a new place, loneliness, social pressure, changes in the study arrangements, comparing one- self to peers, disheartening comments from professors, and the fear related to studying.

Kinga and Agata list many more studying-related stressors than Marta and Karoline do. The critical moment for Kinga was her move to a new place and a new community. Agata speaks in a similar vein: I think some people are driven by change and new people and new situations. Others are quite the opposite, and I am one of the latter, I guess Agata, aged Moving to a new place came with loneliness. Both Kinga and Agata refer to this experience as one of the least pleasant experienc- es early in their studies.

Kinga also says that her loneliness was due to the fact that all her friends and acquaintances decided to study in another city. She compares her situation to the film Home Alone, since at first she had to focus solely on survival. Loneliness made them feel a growing sense of hopelessness. They came to view their situations as difficult as they had nobody to talk to about what they were going through or share problems with and look for solutions together. With the loneliness, Kinga stayed with her own thoughts on her own for so long for the first time ever.

This made her gain some insight into the events in her life that significantly contributed to her disease. Karolina, Kinga and Agata are all pointing to the high educa- tional pressure from their families. Karolina talks about her situa- tion as follows: My parents have always said that you needed to study, that studying is the most important thing. If you do not study, life will be hard for you… and so on… Karolina, aged Kinga believed that her family expects her to be a successful student.

Her parents thought of her decision to go to university as a decision for life. As a student, she could not err, since studying has a bearing on her entire future. Kinga, aged The student says: As I look at it in retrospect, I wish they had not tried to convince me to give up studying even before.

The family pressure also concerned her prospective career. In the student world, there is the widespread belief that it is virtually impossible to find a job. I could not handle that; from the very begin- ning, I would be so scared I would never find a job and be unemployed Agata, aged The sense of hopelessness may have been exacer- bated in them by the additional aspect mentioned by Kinga.

She said that she had no longer wanted to be a financial burden on her family and therefore could not afford wrong study decisions. The risk of failure therefore made her feel long-term tension. Early on in their studies, both respondents experienced stressful external situations resulting from their study arrangements. Agata was therefore in a very difficult situation. Even though she admits that she was interested in the field of study she pursued, she was discouraged by her parents from pursuing it because of the bleak career prospects.

She also knew that she had to make a prompt decision, as she could not afford to pay tuition for the other study programme. Now, Kinga points to German language classes as a factor that has strongly influenced her functioning. She adds that she had never studied that language before and had not realized she would not be able to continue learning Spanish. That seemed an extremely difficult challenge to her, too.

I learned Spanish in high school. And then came the German language, suddenly Kinga, aged Both Kinga and Agata were surprised by the changes in the ed- ucational system. Their sense of threat might have been aggravated by the belief that they had no influence on their situations and that they had to cope under the new circumstances.

Early on in their university education, the sense of control the two respondents had over their study programmes fell dramatically. They also felt some uncertainty about whether the following day might bring even more difficulties or not. Kinga recalls that: It was not easy to start up, and then I would face surprises every half a year Kinga, aged Another study-related aspect covered by Agata is the fact she would compare herself with her peers.

She recalls that few of the fellow students valued their studies highly. Most of them had other aspirations — that programme was merely an interim stage leading to other university programmes or an opportunity to prepare for re- taking their A-levels. In contrast, Agata was satisfied with her stud- ies and thus felt she was inferior to her peers. They would also say that it was hard to find a job and that competition is high Agata, aged Marta talks much less about her studies in the context of her de- pression.

She discusses the aspects of studying from the perspective of her fear of taking tests and exams. Marta is also paralyzed with anxiety related to her graduation project and the conversation with her graduation project supervisor. This makes her feel like she is in a vicious circle — on the one hand, she is afraid that she will not be able to graduate on time, and, on the other, she cannot make the effort to work faster. The defense of the BA thesis is very stressful, and I am scared of my supervisor Marta, aged Everyday life of pedagogy students suffering from depression 83 Agata is the only respondent who claims her studies have di- rectly caused her disorder.

In the case of Kinga and Karolina, the study-related stress in a way paved the way to their disorders. Such factors were mentioned during the interviews by Kinga and Marta. This is by far the most difficult part of the conversation for Kinga. Since she mentioned a situation unrelated to her studies, she has made long pauses, has not finished her sentences. She has kept indirectly discussing her background without ever coming to the crux of the matter.

Then she agrees to have a short break. Following the break, we deliberately change the topic — we start talking about the symptoms of her disease rather than the causes. Soon, the stu- dent cuts her sentence short and says: OK, I will tell you this Kinga, aged I was left alone with that and could not handle that. This might have been one of the most difficult experiences in her life. In the light of this information, we can risk a hypothesis that her depression may be a symptom of some more complex difficulties — for instance PTSD.

She says: I have started to see some symptoms in myself recently, too. My concerns have been addressed. The article is comprehensive, well-organized and reasonably well-wrriten. Karanacs talk , 25 April UTC [ reply ]. Change A spin off game have been Comments from Chensiyuan. Comments Nice article. Here are a few suggestions:. Support - a very good and well-sourced article, I think that an improvement could be to cite the statements in the lead paragraph as well as within all the rest of the article.

Support - as good as Tim Duncan , even with less background info. Support - Overall a fine article. Just do me a quick favor. In the lead: "However, the Rockets have not advanced past the first round of the playoffs since he has joined the team,". Remove "has". Other than that, very good work. Giants talk , 21 April UTC [ reply ].

The article seems to be pretty comprehensive. I think the prose is okay but could be improved. Here are some suggestions of what to look for in the prose:. Beagel talk , 18 April UTC [ reply ]. Hi Renata, this comparison is made in the Reserves section of the article where it says there is 1. Hope that helps. I'm nominating this article for featured article because after extensive copyediting I feel it meets the FAC criteria. It's about one of the most influential Quarter Horse racehorses and stallions of the last half of the 20th century, not about the airline.

And it's short too! Other than that, it seems very good. Good work! This is a belated nomination for featured article status of another collaborative effort from Wikiproject dinosaurs, which after conferring with very busy expert main contributor of content Sheep81 is felt to be comprehensive. The images are free and the article has been copyedited by me and other WP:dino editors over time. It is another piece in the puzzle of a future Featured Topic and I feel it is the equal to several other featured dino articles.

Please tell us how we can improve it. Comments: This was quite a good read. Not being a dinosaur expert, hopefully I can ask these without sounding like a fool. Guyinblack25 talk , 21 April UTC [ reply ]. Article about a failed coup. Blnguyen bananabucket , 18 April UTC [ reply ]. Comment sources look good. Thanks for so promptly fixing everything!

I will now promptly sign! It is well written, the plot section is succinct, and there is lots of interesting real world information. Support Couple of small things need fixing:. Overall, great work, these are just some other pointers which would make the article better.

Cirt talk , 27 April UTC [ reply ]. Self-nomination I'm nominating this article for featured article consideration because I believe it meets all the requirements. Overall, good work so far. I'll give you some more things to take care of when these things are fixed.

Comments I just made a few copyedit tweaks. A few remaining questions:. Maralia talk , 22 April UTC [ reply ]. Support No remaining issues. Well done. Support - Have watched this article matriculate and can see nothing that would lead me to have an issue with this article becoming an FA forthwith.

Co-Nominators Ruhrfisch and Dincher. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The following is an archived discussion of a featured article nomination. Please do not modify it. Subsequent comments should be made on the article's talk page or in Wikipedia talk:Featured article candidates. No further edits should be made to this page.

The article was promoted , 30 April If there are other issues later, I am sure they will be fixed. I couldn't find anything major. PeterSymonds talk , 26 April UTC [ reply ] I don't really know what that means, or how to reply, except to say that the link works.. Ottava Rima talk , 25 April UTC [ reply ] I've moved it up to the top of the section and to the right side of the page for now.

I'll trawl the internet to see if I can add anything else, but I think the paragraph covers all the information there is. How is the image placement now? That poor girl. I attempted a small expansion relying on the information provided in one of your references. How does that look? And your edit is wonderful, thank you.

That's right. The prose in the article under the Exec producers section gives more information: " When production of season three began, a user on the official D:TNG website with the alias "ExecProducer" began a thread called "Shooting Season 3", revealing production details, guest actors, scheduling information and DVD release details. He referred to himself as "Stephen Stohn" in one post, although although it was not until the release of the Degrassi: Generations - The Official guidebook in , when Stohn confirmed the rumor.

If you're in Canada, it works. If you're in the US, it doesn't. Anyway, I replaced it with a press release from CTV. They are television episodes. I have included an external url to TV Guide's page of the series. Also title needs to be not in capitals.

The links are just convenience, although at the moment they are not linking to a subheading but rather the top of Degrassi: The Next Generation, so they don't really provide much use for the reader. Comments - Having followed this article for awhile, I can happily say it is looking very good! Here are the ones I noticed noticed that can't just be sourced to the series itself or to the CD, etc mentioned in the previous sentence.

Concept: "Moore realized that the character Emma Nelson, born at the end of Degrassi Junior High's second season, would soon be entering junior high school. I can find references for some, for others the only reference would be the closing titles of the episode. I agree that this isn't the best place to put the information, but everywhere else seems even more out of place. I found a page deep in the degrassi.

The wikilink appears in the sentence before that one. I can't find a reference online; the only thing I can find is actually listening to the theme at the beginning of season six and seven episodes, and reading the closing credits. Any suggestions? Seemed like the best choice as that was the first time the new remixed version was used.

Main roles: "Other characters, such as Caitlyn Ryan and Joey Jeremiah simply did not appear in the series at the beginning of a new season, and no explanation was given to their disappearance. I also think the Brazil info might be wrong, looking at this no Degrassi episode of any of the five Degrassi series so much as touches on Hong Kong , so I'm going to remove the entire sentence.

Other than watching the show and counting the number of non-white characters, this can't really be verified. The comma is punctuation as part of the sentence, not the title, which is just "Shooting Season 3" without the comma. I've addressed some, and have queried others. Now addressed everything. Interstate 70 in Utah [ edit ] Self-Nom: I'm nominating this article for featured article because Can we please spell out acronyms in the footnotes?

FHWA really should be spelled out. This source largely duplicates material available from the suwa. So I switched to suwa. This is the on-line website for a magazine that was formerly available in print form. The specific article I'm using from this website was from when the magazine was published in print form, and this article available in book stores at the time.

Per the website, the magazine still hosts a talk radio show. I believe this to be an acceptable source. However, other sources exist if you disagree. Again, SUWA. However SUWA's article on the subject has a politically charged tone, and I felt the source currently used was better given the circumstances.

Never mind, I just found a Denver Post article that can be used to source this. This website is a non-government hosted searchable database of the federal government's data. This same data is available directly from the FHWA, but the FWHA's formatting of this data makes it nearly impossible for a non-expert to find the relevant facts. This non-government clone of the FWHA data has been deemed acceptable on other FA articles that mention bridges, including Interstate and the Kansas Turnpike , which was the featured article from last Saturday.

I have switched to the Federal Highway Administration as the primary source with nationalbridges. I hope this is sufficient. Davemeistermoab talk All other links checked out Ealdgyth - Talk , 17 April UTC [ reply ] I hope my responses resolve your concerns, please advise if you still have concerns Davemeistermoab talk , 17 April UTC [ reply ] that works.

The article was promoted , 29 April Nebular hypothesis [ edit ] Self-nominator. I actually can not find any Citation templates in the article. Only ' Cite Could you give a specific example? Ruslik talk , 23 April UTC [ reply ] If you look at the bottom when you edit, it shows the templates being used. One is citation. That's how I check, I just look at the templates in use.

My guess is that because of Harvard ref templates in the article for Wurchterl and Papaloizou that's what is showing the citation template in use. I actually used Harvard reference templates because there is no Cite equivalent for citing book chapters.

I think it does not cause any inconsistency in the format, because all such citations in the article have the same format Harvard reference. Ruslik talk , 24 April UTC [ reply ] It's not the inconsistency, it's that some folks have reported glitches when the two templates are mixed, or so I'm told. Sandy just told me that that was one of the things I should look for when I'm checking sources. You do know that the cite encyclopedia template works for citing works like chapters that are written by different folks than the main author of the book, right?

Boydell Shakespeare Gallery [ edit ] This article on an eighteenth-century project that was dedicated to promoting Shakespeare both through art and through a new edition of the Bard's plays has been quite difficult to write. Awadewit talk , 23 April UTC [ reply ] Support : Watching this since since it's inception last November, and am impressed with its development since.

Its great. The lead says it was was a collection of pictures The second explanation treating it as a "project" would seem better to me after all, Boydell published other works "From the Shakespeare Gallery" that weren't anything to do with Shakespeare. Yomangani talk , 23 April UTC [ reply ] Boydell started by thinking that the edition and its illustrations would be the focus but then the gallery took over the project.

How best to make this clear? The initial statements attempt to describe what the gallery is and later the articles tries to describe the changing focus of the project. Any help on this would be appreciated. Note: all of the works associated with the Shakespeare Gallery were on Shakespearean subjects, as far as I know. Awadewit talk , 23 April UTC [ reply ] Maybe just reword the opening paragraph, as the rest isn't contradictory.

I left a suggestion—very much a draft—on the talk page. With regard to the note: he published Hogarth's Works in from the Shakespeare Gallery—admittedly there were a few Shakespearean scenes in there, but it wasn't chiefly a Shakespeare set. During the s the Boydells engaged in several other projects. If this is part of the Gallery, it should be part of the article. Do you have any references for that? I suppose you could argue they weren't publishing it as a "Shakespeare Gallery" edition, but it probably rates a mention.

It's reproduced in Hogarth's Graphic Works, 3rd edition, p. The plates that Boydell bought from Jane Hogarth were sold off in the auction too. Yomangani talk , 23 April UTC [ reply ] I don't think you can use that as evidence since the Boydell publishing firm was located at that building throughout all of the years of the Shakespeare enterprise and published other books under that address as the article notes.

I think that is just advertising for the Shakespeare Gallery embedded in publishing information. Moreover, everything Boydell owned was sold off in the auction. I think we need much more solid evidence than this that Hogarth's Prints was considered part of the Shakespeare enterprise.

I haven't seen it mentioned in any of the published works I have read on the Gallery, so I am reticent to include it on such slim evidence. Awadewit talk , 23 April UTC [ reply ] I don't have a problem with not including it; the "at the Shakespeare Gallery" was what I wanted to point out, and the new lead makes it clear it is more than just a collection of paintings the mention of the plates being sold off was just for colour. I think it is a sad twist that Hogarth got the whole Shakespeare painting thing rolling and Boydell ends up having to flog his plates off to finance the white elephant of the gallery.

Anyway, you've addressed my one niggle, so I'm supporting. Yomangani talk , 23 April UTC [ reply ] I used to have that image in the article when the Shakespeare section was longer. Current ref 44 "Quoted on Shakespeare Illustrated" is that website in the bibliography?

If not, it's lacking publisher information Publication information added. Awadewit talk , 23 April UTC [ reply ] The West "John Boydell" reference, the link requires registration, probably should put that in the reference.

Link removed. Awadewit talk , 24 April UTC [ reply ] I don't know if sandwiching text can ever really be justified, based on formating concerns. Try moving the picture, shrinking size, adding text, etc, so that they aren't across from each other. This is the best possible solution. Sometimes sandwiching can't be avoided and I think that it is worth it to have both of these images.

Awadewit talk , 23 April UTC [ reply ] "Pall Mall at that time had a mix of expensive residences and commercial operations, such as bookshops and gentleman's clubs, popular with fashionable London society. The sculpture depicted Shakespeare, reclining against a rock, between the Dramatic Muse and the Genius of Painting" Covered by footnotes at end of paragraph. The gallery added new paintings of subjects from poetry each year, and from supplemented these with scenes from the Bible" Covered by next footnote.

I will find a citation for the one problem sentence you have identified when I get home and have access to all of my notes and books. Otherwise, it is impossible to identify which ref is actually citing which information and which information is not cited at all. Ottava Rima talk , 24 April UTC [ reply ] It is not impossible to determine what information is being covered.

The footnotes cover the same topic. This is a common convention. It is not necessary to pepper the article with footnotes after every sentence. Awadewit talk , 24 April UTC [ reply ] But unless you are there to tell people, how will someone know this same thing years from now? I think it would be important to "pepper" an 18th century article because most of us didn't grow up in the 18th century, soooo, it would be hard to verify from our actual experience. There is no need to replicate the footnotes.

Many of the sentences tied to one footnote appear at opposite ends of the paragraph, and without easy access to the reference, there would be no way to establish that. If you are unwilling to correct this by sourcing more of the information, then I will have to oppose this on "2" grounds. Ottava Rima talk , 25 April UTC [ reply ] edit conflict: There is no policy that states that every single sentence in the article has to have a footnote after it. The footnotes are placed appropriately.

Every topic, whether controversial or not, has a note placed after it. The sourcing in this article meets and exceeds the standards of WP:V. You are, of course, still welcome to oppose. That is enough. Its an easy fix. Why so stubborn about it? If the footnotes say what you claim they say, then place them in the sentences that they say.

If not, then don't. But right now, it looks like the sentences don't have any critical justification for those claims. According to guideline one: "Claims are supported with specific evidence and external citations" That doesn't say "claims are supported at the end of a paragraph".

If anything, more than sufficiently so. That is what I have done. There is no need to distract readers with inline citations after every sentence. That is unnecessary and has no precedent in any policy or guideline. Awadewit talk , 25 April UTC [ reply ] If you read the definition of appropriate, you would see that appropriate is anything that could be challenged. I am challenging it above.

There is no way, from common knowledge, to know that information. Therefore, you will have to provide citations to show it, because it is definitely not obvious that one citation covers multiple lines of information. Ottava Rima talk , 25 April UTC [ reply ] You challenged almost every sentence in the article that didn't have a footnote. That isn't reasonable.

Reasonable readers can put together that footnotes cover more than one sentence - that they cover several sentences about the same topic. This is a common practice across Wikipedia and other publications. I can't see anything further to say on this matter. We are simply repeating ourselves. Awadewit talk , 25 April UTC [ reply ] I challenged every line that had a claim to a fact without evidence to support that claim.

That is standard Wikipedia procedure, and such lines deserve to have "fact" templates put on them. Ottava Rima talk , 25 April UTC [ reply ] And I explained to you how each of those sentences was already covered by a footnote. The sentences are supported by citations. Awadewit talk , 25 April UTC [ reply ] And I made it clear to you that unless you explain it to everyone after for on and on and on, then they will not stand.

You can apply the simple fix, or you can come up with the same problem. The citations need explaining, and are easily done by putting extra footnotes where appropriate. I don't really understand what the problem is here, or why you are refusing to do such a simple thing.

But until that happens, you didn't meet FA requirement. Age of Empires [ edit ] Article has gone through 2 GA reviews first failed, second passed and an extensive peer review. Cheers, dihydrogen monoxide H 2 O , 19 April UTC [ reply ] Comment don't have time for a good review, but this is so I watchlist the page and don't forget about you Seven games have been released from the series, as well as three spin-offs.

Just seems to stick out from the text. Perhaps reword to be more straightfoward "The series began with 's AoE Perhaps it should be "a reputation for real time strategy games ; when Bungie Studios wanted to create a RTS based in the Halo universe, they chose Ensemble" or something like that.

Good suggestion, did something similar. Could another image serve it better? Or I might make some myself Photoshop hates me. I'll ask around, if you don't want to. Used for a downloads page in other words, citing the file, it's just that Microsoft no longer hosts it, as far as I can see and an interview. I think I found it through Metacritic , for what that's worth. I'll try and find another viewpoint on that. Found a copy of it on web archive, hence linking to that.

Replaced with IGN ref. Ealdgyth - Talk , 19 April UTC [ reply ] DHMO will have to speak for the others, but Music4Games is not a self-published source, has a staff, et al, and is a major partner for game music events. The rest are stylistic issues and not important enough to warrant an oppose. Non-free image used without corresponding section explaining absolute important to the article. I don't understand from the article why there is a "series" article that mostly rehashes the individual game articles, is this a a glorified list?

References seem to be about individual games, not about the series as a series. I'm not seeing them, sorry. Which non-free image is used without a decent explanation? Again, I'm sorry, but it's very difficult for me to fix the issues if I don't know what they are. If you're unsure as to the article's layout, you may wish to look at Mana series , Kingdom Hearts series , Halo series , etc.

I've added as many references discussing the series as a whole as I could find, there weren't that many, surprisingly. I don't see why the icons are necessary to the article, nor do I see how icons could be absolutely important to it, so the fairuse rationale for FA which is higher than standard article doesn't match up in my eyes.

I just looked at the Mana series, and the way series are discussed is far different than the way you put forward. Note, they have history and design, whereas, you have summaries of the plot. Maybe you should follow the chart format put forth by the Mana series and move the development section up in order to show that this is a page on the series instead of just a rehash of every other page. Now, there is a problem with the other "series" games, which can be seen on their FAs - they were passed with very few commentators.

Two supports and twp possible oppose for Mana, for instance. The same goes for Kingdom Hearts. I don't really know what to tell you to use as a guide here. It seems that our major problems is that there aren't enough people to really come up with a unified consensus on "series" formats. Or, if sections, then the external links section among others lacks references?

I'm not sure about that last point If you disagree with it, the best place to go is WT:VG. I think I've done everything actionable in your oppose. Sorry, that was left out, but in context, that should have been understood. Especially when I mentioned in the preceding statement.

Its not hard to look at your own article and determine which paragraphs lack citations. And the Halo series doesn't offer anything to justify many of the problems with your article, especially with the constant duplication of other information. You haven't provided why the series is notable. You have only provided why parts of the series are notable. This, if anything, is easily accomplished by a category. Furthermore, the Halo series is not an FA, so you can't use it to even form a basis for what an FA should look like.

You lack effective notability, there are paragraphs missing citations, and there are images that are inappropriate for FAs. I wasn't taking this as well as I could have I suppose I blame school and stuff here, right? Sorry for the confusion, especially on my part. To address, briefly, the other points - yes, the Halo one isn't an FA, but it's close, and the other ones pointed to are FAs I suppose some series get different coverage to others, and in the case of this one, most mention of the series is generally in the context of talking about an individual game in a review of it, etc.

Also, the images have been changed around a bit I've added some references that make note of it being in the series. Trimmed, thanks for pointing it out. Reworded generally, hence emphasising the AoM exception. Got one! It's not going to start with the second game, is it? Added a bit. I was going to suggest the word "collaborate" but I guess that's in the next sentence. How is it now? Yeah, it is now. Looks awkward without it just "Series logo" Tell me if I'm mistaken.

I think you're mistaken Added full stop. Plus, we even get a bit of "Reception" thrown in there as well. I see your general point reception? I suppose the way the game works does sometimes interrelate with how it's designed The subsequent sentence then uses "despite" again. Anyway, shouldn't "3" be written out in full here? Same for other examples of this. Yes, and done. Not seeing the problem? But according to this, its predecessor sold more.

Reword to say that it was more successful critically. I'm never sure. Needs consistency. Only joking—keep it as it is. It's what we use on music articles, unsure if there's a different way of doing it here I would personally replace that word.

Seems to imply that it attained these scores deservedly. But they were deserving! Reworded anyway. Seems rather obvious, so I'd rather not. I may be wrong, but I don't thiink it's technically correct. I think semicolon is correct here. All seem to be fixed now. I'm afraid that I'm unwilling to support though. I'm just not confident that the prose is "engaging, even brilliant"; I just think it needs that extra bit of polish, sorry.

Comment : criterion three concerns: Image:AoE Helmets. Minimal usage is required oer WP:NFCC 3A; why are two fair use images needed to "assure the reader they have reached the right article"? Additionally, what significant contribution to our understanding do the helmets provide NFCC 8? They appear to be used only as eye candy. Helmets image is gone still using logo.

Prose seems perfectly adequate to convey information regarding "upcoming games". The article has a cited quote of these games being "total speculation"; why are we illustrating something speculative? Even if the next citation listed covers this quotation, the citation should be duplicated in the sentence with the quote in case someone else comes in and rearranges the order or inserts other text.

I assume not all 3 mil copies were sold in Yep, you're right. I think the article ought to touch briefly on what a home city is. See also my comments here. I copyedited most of the games and development sections but the rest of the article needs to be finessed. There is a lot of clunky text. Yao Ming [ edit ] here goes I'm nominating this article for featured article because it's recently passed GA actually, very recently, hehe , and I think it is good enough in terms of comprehensiveness, verability, etc.

The only thing I can find on its website is this page , which gives us nothing to go on except that its owned by something called Sports Phenoms. Sandy Georgia Talk , 29 April UTC [ reply ] I am unconvinced that this is a reliable source, but it's only used once, and doesn't seem to be used controversially.

Please try to replace this source with a better one. It's basically NBA stats plus some advanced stats. It's not inaccurate, and it's been mentioned several times on ESPN and whatever else. Those sites are as good as anything when it comes to statistics.

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