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In his Primer for Critics, Boas gaily exposits a plural- ism of interests and corresponding types of criticism; and, at, the end of his Use of Poetry and the Use of Criticism, Eliot sadly, or at least wearily, insists on the "variety of poetry" and the variety of things the kinds of poetry may do at various times.

But these are exceptions. To take art, or literature, or poetry seriously is, ordinarily at least, to attribute to it some use proper 22 Theory of Literature to itself. Considering Arnold's view that poetry could supersede religion and philosophy, Eliot writes: ". There are no real substitutes. In practice, literature can obviously take the place of many things — of travel or sojourn in foreign lands, of direct experience, vicarious life; and it can be used by the his- torian as a social document.

But has literature a work, a use, which nothing else does as well? Or is it an amalgam of philos- ophy, history, music, and imagery which, in a really modern economy, would be distributed? This is the basic question. The defenders of literature will believe that it is not an archaic survival but a permanence, and so will many who are neither poets nor teachers of poetry and who therefore lack the profes- sional interest in survival. The experience of unique value in literature is basic to any theory concerning the nature of the value.

Our shifting theories attempt to do progressively better justice to the experience. Poetry is a form of knowledge. Aristotle had seemed to say something like that in his famous dictum that poetry is more philosophical than history, since history "relates things which have happened, poetry such as might happen," the general and probable.

Now, however, when history, like literature, ap- pears a loose, ill-defined discipline, and when science, rather, is the impressive rival, it is, rather, contended that literature gives a knowledge of those particularities with which science and philosophy are not concerned. While a neoclassical theorist like Dr. Johnson could still think of poetry in terms of the "grandeur of generality," modern theorists, of many schools e. Says Stace, the play Othello is not about jealousy but about Othello's jeal- ousy, the particular kind of jealousy a Moor married to a Venetian might feel.

But not only are The Function of Literature 23 there shifts in the stress of literary theory. In literary practice, the specific degree of generality or particularity shifts from work to work and period to period. Pilgrim and Everyman undertake to be mankind. But Morose, the "humorist" of Jonson's Epi- coene, is a very special and idiosyncratic person. The principle of characterization in literature has always been defined as that of combining the "type" with the "individual" — showing the type in the individual or the individual in the type.

The attempts at interpreting this principle, or specific dogmas derived from it, have not been very helpful. Literary typologies go back to the Horatian doctrine of decorum, and to the repertory of types in Roman comedy e. We recognize the typological again in the character books of the seventeenth century and in the comedies of Moliere. But how to apply the concept more generally?

Is the nurse in Romeo and Juliet a type? If so, of what? Is Hamlet a type? Apparently, for an Elizabethan audience, a melancholiac, something as described by Dr. Timothy Bright. But he is many other things also, and his melancholy is given a particular genesis and context. In some sense, the character which is an individual as well as a type is so constituted by being shown to be many types: Hamlet is also a lover, or former lover, a scholar, a connoisseur of the drama, a fencer.

Every man is a convergence or nexus of types — even the simplest man. So-called character types are seen "flat," as all of us see people with whom we have relations of a single kind ; "round" characters combine views and relations, are shown in different contexts — public life, private, foreign lands.

Horney recommends Dostoevsky, Shakespeare, Ibsen, and Balzac as inexhaustible sources. Forster Aspects of the Novel speaks of the very limited number of persons whose inner life and motivations we know, and sees it as the great service of the novel that it does reveal the introspective life of the characters.

One might maintain that the great novels are source books for psychologists, 24 Theory of Literature or that they are case histories i. But here we seem to come back to the fact that psychologists will use the novel only for its generalized typical value: they will draw off the character of Pere Goriot from the total setting the Maison Vauquer and context of characters.

Max Eastman, himself a minor poet, would deny that the "literary mind" can, in an age of science, lay claim to the dis- covery of truth. The "literary mind" is simply the unspecialized, amateur mind of prescientific days attempting to persist and tak- ing advantage of its verbal facility to create the impression that it is uttering the really important "truths. The novelist has no magic short cut to that present state of knowledge in the social sciences which con- stitutes the "truth" against which his "world," his fictional real- ity, is to be checked.

But then, believes Eastman, the imaginative writer — and especially the poet — misunderstands himself if he thinks of his prime office as that of discovering and communi- cating knowledge. His real function is to make us perceive what we see, imagine what we already, conceptually or practically, know. One remembers the black and white drawings in which there are concealed figures or faces composed of dots and broken lines: they were there all the time, but one did not see them as wholes, as designs.

In his Intentions, Wilde cites Whistler's discovery of aesthetic value in fog, of the Pre-Raphaelite discov- ery of beauty in types of women hitherto not seen as beautiful or as types. Are these instances of "knowledge" or "truth"? We hesitate. They are discoveries of new "perceptual values," we say, of new "aesthetic qualities.

Imaginative literature is a "fiction," an artistic, verbal "imitation of life. The philosopher or critic must think some of these "views" truer than others as Eliot thinks Dante's truer than Shelley's or even than Shakespeare's 3 but any mature philosophy of life must have some measure of truth — at any event it lays claim to it. The truth of literature, as we are now considering it, seems to be the truth in literature — the philosophy which exists, in systematic conceptual form, out- side of literature but may be applied to or illustrated by or em- bodied in literature.

In this sense, the truth in Dante is Catholic theology and scholastic philosophy. Eliot's view of poetry in its relation to "truth" seems essentially of this sort. Truth is the province of systematic thinkers ; and artists are not such thinkers, though they may try to be if there are no philosophers whose work they can suitably assimilate. What do we mean by "knowledge," "truth," "cogni- tion," "wisdom"? If all truth is conceptual and propositional, then the arts — even the art of literature — can't be forms of truth.

Again: if positivist reductive definitions are accepted, limiting truth to that which can be methodically verified by any- one, then art can't be a form of truth experimentally. The alternative to these seems some bi-modal or pluri-modal truth: there are various "ways of knowing" 5 or there are two basic types of knowledge, each of which uses a language system of signs: the sciences, which use the "discursive" mode, and the arts, which use the "presentational.

The former is what philosophers have ordinarily meant, while the latter takes care of religious "myth" as well as poetry. We might call the latter "true" rather than "the truth. In his "Ars Poetica," MacLeish at- 26 Theory of Literature tempts to adjust the claims of literary beauty and philosophy by the formula, a poem is "equal to: not true": poetry is as serious and important as philosophy science, knowledge, wis- dom and possesses the equivalence of truth, is truth-like.

Langer stresses the plastic arts and, still more, music, rather than literature, in her plea for presentational symbolism as a form of knowledge. Presumably she thinks of literature as in some way a mixture of "discursive" and "presentational. But in their dangerous calling they feel secure; in their comfortless quarters they are at ease.

Waters and ships, heaven and storm and harbor, somehow contain the symbols through which they see meaning and sense in the world. The term "propa- ganda" is loose and needs scrutiny. In popular speech, it is applied only to doctrines viewed as pernicious and spread by men whom we distrust. The word implies calculation, intention, and is usually applied to specific, rather restricted doctrines or pro- grams. If, however, we stretch the term to mean "effort, whether conscious or not, to influence readers to share one's attitude toward life," then there is plausi- bility in the contention that all artists are propagandists or should be, or in complete reversal of the position outlined in the preceding sentence that all sincere, responsible artists are morally obligated to be propagandists.

According to Montgomery Belgion, the literary artist is an " 'irresponsible propagandist. The effect of the work is always to persuade the reader to accept that view or theory. This per- suasion is always illicit. That is to say, the reader is always led to believe something, and that assent is hypnotic — the art of the presentation seduces the reader. Serious art implies a view of life which can be stated in philosophical terms, even in terms of systems.

The responsible artist has no will to confuse emotion and thinking, sensibility and intellection, sincerity of feeling with adequacy of experience and reflection. The view of life which the responsible artist articulates perceptually is not, like most views which have popular success as "propaganda," simple; and an adequately complex vision of life cannot, by hypnotic suggestion, move to premature or naive action.

It remains to consider those conceptions of the function of literature clustered about the word "catharsis. The exegesis of Aristotle's use of the word remains in dispute; but what Aristotle may have meant, an exegetical problem of inter- est, need not be confounded with the problems to which the term has come to be applied.

The function of literature, some say, is to relieve us — either writers or readers — from the pressure of emotions. To express emotions is to get free of them, as Goethe is said to have freed himself from Weltschmerz by composing The Sorrows of Werther. And the spectator of a tragedy or the reader of a novel is also said to experience release and relief. His emotions have been provided with focus, leaving him, at the end of his aesthetic experience, with "calm of mind.

Tragedy and comedy, Plato thought, "nourish and water our emotions when we ought to dry them up. As a youth, St. Augustine confesses, he lived in mortal sin; yet "all this I wept not, I who wept for Dido slain. These are problems for treatment under "The Relation of Literature to Psychology" and "The Relation of Literature to Society" ; but they have, preliminarily, to be raised now. That, for proper readers, literature does not and should not incite the emotions is our hypothetical answer.

Emotions repre- sented in literature are, neither for writer nor for reader, the same as emotions in "real life"; they are "recollected in tran- quillity" ; they are "expressed" — that is, released — by analysis ; they are the feelings of emotions, the perceptions of emotions. To conclude: the question concerning the function of literature has a long history — in the Western world, from Plato down to the present. It is not a question instinctively raised by the poet or by those who like poetry; for such, "Beauty is its own excuse, for being," as Emerson was once drawn into saying.

The ques- tion is put, rather, by utilitarians and moralists, or by statesmen and philosophers, that is, by the representatives of other special values or the speculative arbiters of all values. What, they ask, is the use of poetry anyhow — cm bono? And they ask the ques- tion at the full social or human dimension. Thus challenged, the poet and the instinctive reader of poetry are forced, as morally and intellectually responsible citizens, to make some reasoned reply to the community.

They do so in a passage of an Ars Poetica. They write a Defense or Afology for poetry: the lit- erary equivalent of what is called in theology "apologetics. But from the Romantic movement on, the poet has often given, when chal- lenged by the community, a different answer: the answer which A.

Bradley calls "poetry for poetry's sake"; 19 and theorists do well to let the term "function" serve the whole "apologetic" range. So using the word, we say, poetry has many possible functions. Its prime and chief function is fidelity to its own nature. English affords no very satisfactory name for this. The most common terms for it are "literary scholar- ship" and "philology. The latter term, "philology," is open to many misunderstandings.

His- torically, it has been used to include not only all literary and linguistic studies but studies of all products of the human mind. Though its greatest vogue was in nineteenth-century Germany, it still survives in the titles of such reviews as Modem Philology, Philological Quarterly, and Studies in Philology. Boekh, who wrote a fundamental Encyklof'ddie und Methodologie der fhi- lologischen Wissenschaften , but based on lectures partly dating back to , 1 defined "philology" as the "knowledge of the known" and hence the study of language and literatures, arts and politics, religion and social customs.

Practically identical with Greenlaw's "literary history," Boekh's philology is ob- viously motivated by the needs of classical studies, for which the help of history and archaeology seems particularly necessary.

With Boekh, literary study is only one branch of philology, understood as a total science of civilization, particularly a science of what he, with German Romanticism, called the "National Spirit. Since the term has so many and such diver- gent meanings, it is best to abandon it.

Another alternative term for the work of the literary scholar 29 30 Theory of Literature is "research. For example, it is "research" when one visits the British Museum to read a rare book, while it apparently involves a different mental process to sit at home in an armchair and read a reprint of the same book. At most, the term "research" sug- gests certain preliminary operations, the extent and nature of which will vary greatly with the nature of the problem.

But it ill suggests those subtle concerns with interpretation, characteri- zation, and evaluation which are peculiarly characteristic of lit- erary studies. Within our "proper study," the distinctions between literary theory, criticism, and history are clearly the most important. There is, first, the distinction between a view of literature as a simultaneous order and a view of literature which sees it pri- marily as a series of works arranged in a chronological order and as integral parts of the historical process.

There is, then, the further distinction between the study of the principles and criteria of literature and the study of the concrete literary works of art, whether we study them in isolation or in a chronological series. It seems best to draw attention to these distinctions by describing as "literary theory" the study of the principles of literature, its categories, criteria, and the like, and by differen- tiating studies of concrete works of art as either "literary criti- cism" primarily static in approach or "literary history.

Aristotle was a theorist j Sainte-Beuve, primarily a critic. Kenneth Burke is largely a literary theorist, while R. Blackmur is a literary critic. The term "theory of literature" might well include — as this book does — the necessary "theory of literary criticism" and "theory of literary history.

But less common is a realization that the methods so designated cannot be used in isolation, that they implicate each other so thoroughly as to make inconceivable literary theory without criticism or history, or criticism without theory and his- Literary Theory, Critic'ism y and History 3 1 tory, or history without theory and criticism. Obviously, literary theory is impossible except on the basis of" a study of concrete literary works.

Criteria, categories, and schemes cannot be ar- rived at in vacuo. But, conversely, no criticism or history is pos- sible without some set of questions, some system of concepts, some points of reference, some generalizations. There is here, of course, no unsurmountable dilemma: we always read with some preconceptions, and we always change and modify these preconceptions upon further experience of literary works.

The process is dialectical: a mutual interpenetration of theory and practice. There have been attempts to isolate literary history from theory and criticism. For example, F. Bateson 2 argued that literary history shows A to derive from B, while criticism pro- nounces A to be better than B.

The first type, according to this view, deals with verifiable facts j the second, with matters of opinion and faith. But this distinction is quite untenable. There are simply no data in literary history which are completely neu- tral "facts. Even the ascertaining of a date or a title presupposes some kind of judgment, one which selects this particular book or event from the millions of other books and events.

Even if we grant that there are facts comparatively neutral, facts such as dates, titles, biographical events, we merely grant the possi- bility of compiling the annals of literature. But any question a little more advanced, even a question of textual criticism or of sources and influences, requires constant acts of judgment. Such a statement, for example, as "Pope derives from Dryden" not only presupposes the act of selecting Dryden and Pope out of the innumerable versifiers of their times, but requires a knowl- edge of the characteristics of Dryden and Pope and then a con- stant activity of weighing, comparing, and selecting which is essentially critical.

But usually the case for the isolation of literary history from literary criticism is put on different grounds. It is not denied that acts of judgment are necessary, but it is argued that literary history has its own peculiar standards and criteria, i. We must, these literary reconstructionists argue, enter into the mind and attitudes of past periods and accept their standards, deliberately excluding the intrusions of our own pre- conceptions. This view, called "historicism," was elaborated consistently in Germany during the nineteenth century, though even there it has been criticized by historical theorists of such eminence as Ernst Troeltsch.

Hardin Craig, for instance, said that the newest and best phase of recent scholarship is the "avoidance of anachronistic think- ing. Stoll, studying the conventions of the Elizabethan stage and the expectations of its audience, works on the theory that the reconstruction of the author's intention is the central purpose of literary history. This view has been candidly and persuasively ex- pounded by Frederick A.

Pottle in his Idiom of Poetry. His exposition is the more valuable as he com- bines it with an acceptance of absolute standards in ethics and religion. Successful efforts have been made to reconstruct the general outlook in life, the attitudes, concep- tions, prejudices, and underlying assumptions of many civiliza- tions. We know a great deal about the Greek attitude toward the gods, women, and slaves ; we can describe the cosmology of the Middle Ages in great detail ; and we have attempts to show the very different manner of seeing, or at least the very different artistic traditions and conventions, implied by Byzantine and Chinese art.

Especially in Germany there is a plethora of studies, many of them influenced by Spengler, on the Gothic man, the Baroque man — all supposed to be sharply set off from our time, living in a world of their own. In the study of literature, this attempt at historical recon- struction has led to great stress on the intention of the author, which, it is assumed, can be studied in the history of criticism and literary taste.

It is usually assumed that if we can ascertain this intention and can see that the author has fulfilled it, we can also dispose of the problem of criticism. The author has served a contemporary purpose, and there is no need or even possi- bility of further criticizing his work. The method thus leads to the recognition of a single critical standard, that of contemporary success.

There are then not only one or two but literally hun- dreds of independent, diverse, and mutually exclusive concep- tions of literature, each of which is in some way "right. The history of literature is reduced to a series of discrete and hence finally incomprehensible frag- ments.

The extreme form of this historicism is the Chicago Neo- Aristotelianism, which, denying the possibility of a general theory of literature, leaves us with unique and thus incommen- surate and equal works. A more moderate form is the view that there are polar poetical ideals which are so different that there is no common denominator between them : Classicism and Roman- ticism, the ideal of Pope and of Wordsworth, the poetry of state- ment and the poetry of implication.

The meaning of a work of art is not exhausted by, or even equivalent to, its intention. As a system of values, it leads an independent life. The total meaning of a work of art cannot be defined merely in terms of its meaning for the author and his contemporaries.

It is rather the result of a process of accretion, i. It seems unnecessary and actually impossible to declare, as the historical reconstructionists do, that this whole process is irrelevant and that we must return only to its beginning. It is simply not possible to stop being men of the twentieth century while we engage in a judgment of the past: we cannot forget the associations of our own language, the newly acquired attitudes, the impact and import of the last centuries.

We cannot become contemporary readers of Homer or Chaucer or members of the audience of the theater of Dionysus in Athens or of the Globe in London. There will always be a decisive difference between an act of imaginative reconstruction and actual participation in a past point of view. We cannot really believe in Dionysus and laugh at him at the same time, as the audience of Euripides' Bacchae seem to have done; 10 and few of us can accept Dante's circles of Hell and mountain of Purgatory as literal truth.

If we should really be able to reconstruct the meaning which Hamlet held for its contemporary audience, we would merely impoverish it. We would suppress the legitimate meanings which later generations found in Hamlet. We would bar the possibility of a new interpretation. This is not a plea for arbi- trary subjective misreadings: the problem of a distinction be- tween "correct" and wrong-headed readings will remain, and will need a solution in every specific case. The historical scholar will not be satisfied to judge a work of art merely from the point of view of our own time — a privilege of the practicing critic, who will revaluate the past in terms of the needs of a present-day style or movement.

It may be even instructive for him to look at a work of art from the point of view of a third time, contem- poraneous neither with him nor with the author, or to survey the whole history of the interpretation and criticism of a work which will serve as a guide to the total meaning.

Literary Theory , Criticism, and History 35 In practice, such clear-cut choices between the historical and the present-day point of view are scarcely feasible. We must beware of both false relativism and false absolutism. Values grow out of the historical process of valuation, which they in turn help us to understand. The answer to historical relativism is not a doctrinaire absolutism which appeals to "unchanging human nature" or the "universality of art.

We must be able to refer a work of art to the values of its own time and of all the periods subsequent to its own. A work of art is both "eternal" i. Relativism reduces the history of literature to a series of discrete and hence discontinuous fragments, while most absolutisms serve either only a passing present-day situation or are based like the standards of the New Humanists, the Marxists, and the Neo- Thomists on some abstract non-literary ideal unjust to the his- torical variety of literature.

Literature is neither a series of unique works with nothing in common nor a series of works enclosed in time-cycles of Romanticism or Classi- cism, the age of Pope and the age of Wordsworth. Nor is it, of course, the "block-universe" of sameness and immutability which an older Classicism conceived as ideal. Both absolutism and rela- tivism are false ; but the more insidious danger today, at least in the United States, is a relativism equivalent to an anarchy of values, a surrender of the task of criticism.

In practice, no literary history has ever been written without some principles of selection and some attempt at characterization and evaluation. Literary historians who deny the importance of criticism are themselves unconscious critics, usually derivative critics, who have merely taken over traditional standards and reputations. Usually, today, they are belated Romanticists who have closed their minds to all other types of art and especially to modern literature.

But, as R. Collingwood has said very pertinently, a man "who claims to know what makes Shakespeare a poet is tacitly claiming to know whether Miss Stein is a poet, and if not, why not. The term "modern" literature used to be interpreted so widely by academics that scarcely any work after Milton's was considered a quite respectable object of study.

Since then, the eighteenth century has been accepted into good and regular standing as conventional literary history and has even become fashionable, since it appears to offer an escape into a more gracious, more stable, and more hierarchic world. The Romantic period and the later nineteenth century are also beginning to receive the attention of the scholars, and there are even a few hardy men in academic positions who defend and practice the scholarly study of contemporary literature.

The only possible argument against the study of living authors is the point that the student foregoes the perspective of the completed work, of the explication which later works may give to the implications of the earlier. But this disadvantage, valid only for developing authors, seems small compared to the ad- vantages we have in knowing the setting and the time and in the opportunities for personal acquaintance and interrogation or at least correspondence.

If many second- or even tenth-rate authors of the past are worth study, a first- or even second-rate author of our time is worth studying, too. It is usually lack of perception or timidity which makes academics reluctant to judge for themselves.

They profess to await the "verdict of the ages," not realizing that this is but the verdict of other critics and readers, including other professors. The whole supposed im- munity of the literary historian to criticism and theory is thor- oughly false, and that for a simple reason: every work of art is existing now, is directly accessible to observation, and is a solution of certain artistic problems whether it was composed yesterday or a thousand years ago.

It cannot be analyzed, char- acterized, or evaluated without a constant recourse to critical principles. A critic who is con- tent to be ignorant of all historical relationships would con- Literary Theory, Criticism, and History 37 stantly go astray in his judgments.

He could not know which work is original and which derivative; and, through his igno- rance of historical conditions, he would constantly blunder in his understanding of specific works of art. The critic possessed of little or no history is inclined to make slipshod guesses, or to indulge in autobiographical "adventures among masterpieces," and, on the whole, will avoid concern with the more remote past, content to hand that over to the antiquarian and the "philologist.

The application of modern sensibility would give a different perspective to much Anglo-Saxon poetry or to the rich medieval lyric, just as, conversely, an introduction of historical points of view and a systematic examination of genetic problems could throw much light on contemporary lit- erature. The common divorce between literary criticism and literary history has been detrimental to both. Using another basis of division, we shall now attempt a systematic definition of comparative, general, and national literature.

The term "comparative" literature is trouble- some and doubtless, indeed, one of the reasons why this im- portant mode of literary study has had less than the expected academic success. Matthew Arnold, translating Ampere's use of "kistoire comparative" was apparently the first to use the term in English The French have preferred the term used earlier by Villemain, who had spoken of "litterature compare e" , after the analogy of Cuvier's Analomie comparee The Germans speak of "vergleichende Literaturge- schichte.

The formal com- parison between literatures — or even movements, figures, and works — is rarely a central theme in literary history, though such a book as F. Green's Minuet, 2 comparing aspects of French and English eighteenth-century literature, may be illu- minating in defining not only parallels and affinities but also divergences between the literary development of one nation and that of another.

In practice, the term "comparative" literature has covered and still covers rather distinct fields of studv and groups of problems. It may mean, first, the study of oral literature, especiallv of folk-tale themes and their migration 5 of how and when they have entered "higher," "artistic" literature. We must, however, endorse the view that the study of oral literature is an integral part of literary scholarship, for it cannot be divorced from the study of written works, and there has been and still is a con- tinuous interaction between oral and written literature.

Without going to the extreme of folklorists such as Hans Naumann 3 who consider all oral literature as "gesunkenes Kuhurgut" we can recognize that written upper-class literature has profoundly af- fected oral literature. The incorporation into folklore of chivalric romance and troubadour lyric is an indubitable fact. Though this is a view which would have shocked the Romantic believers in the creativity of the folk and the remote antiquity of folk art, nevertheless popular ballads, fairy tales, and legends as we know them are frequently of late origin and upper-class derivation.

Yet the study of oral literature must be an important concern of every literary scholar who wants to understand the processes of literary development, the origins and the rise of our literary genres and devices. It is unfortunate that the study of oral lit- erature has thus far been so exclusively preoccupied with the study of themes and their migrations from country to country, i.

Scholars in the modern European literatures have neglected these questions to their own disadvantage, while literary historians in the Slavic and Scandinavian countries, where folklore is still — or was till recently — alive, have been in much closer touch with these studies.

But "comparative literature" is hardly the term by which to designate the study of oral literature. Another sense of "comparative" literature confines it to the study of relationships between two or more literatures. This is 40 Theory of Literature the use established by the flourishing school of French com- faratistes headed by Fernand Baldensperger and gathered around the Revue de Utterature comfaree.

It has developed a methodology which, going beyond the collection of information concerning reviews, translations, and influences, considers carefully the image, the concept of a particular author at a particular time, such diverse factors of transmission as periodicals, translators, salons, and travelers, and the "receiving factor," the special atmosphere and literary sit- uation into which the foreign author is imported.

In total, much evidence for the close unity, especially of the Western European literatures, has been accumulated ; and our knowledge of the "foreign trade" of literatures has been immeasurably increased. But this conception of "comparative literature" has also, one recognizes, its peculiar difficulties. There is no methodological distinction between a study of "Shakespeare in France" and a study of "Shakespeare in eighteenth-century England," or between a study of Poe's influence on Baudelaire and one of Dryden's influence on Pope.

Comparisons between literatures, if isolated from concern with the total national lit- eratures, tend to restrict themselves to external problems of sources and influences, reputation and fame. Such studies do not permit us to analyze and judge an individual work of art, or even to consider the complicated whole of its genesis; instead, they are mainly devoted either to such echoes of a masterpiece as translations and imitations, frequently by second-rate authors, or to the prehistory of a masterpiece, the migrations and the spread of its themes and forms.

The emphasis of "comparative literature" thus conceived is on externals; and the decline of "comparative literature" in recent decades reflects the general turning away from stress on mere "facts," on sources and influences. A third conception obviates, however, all these criticisms, by identifying "comparative literature" with the study of literature General, Comfarativey and National Literature 41 in Its totality, with "world-literature," with "general" or "uni- versal" literature.

There are certain difficulties with these sug- gested equations. The term "world literature," a translation of Goethe's Weltlheratur? Existing courses in world literature, like the textbooks and handbooks written for them, often supply us with snippets from famous authors and great books ranging from the Rig-Veda to Oscar Wilde and encourage an indis- criminate smattering, a vague, sentimental cosmopolitanism.

The possibly preferable term "general literature" has the disad- vantage that Paul Van Tieghem 10 has tried to capture it for a rather narrow conception in specific contrast to "comparative literature. In practice, however, it would be difficult to determine be- forehand which movements are general and thus to draw a line of distinction between the purely national and the general.

Most of Van Tieghem's own books are rather conventional investiga- tions of a comparative sort, studying Ossian in France or the international vogue of "graveyard poetry," or are handbooks of external facts and interrelationships. The practical result of such thinking will be a general history, especially of the Western tradition. One cannot doubt the continuity between Greek and Roman literatures, the Western medieval world, and the main modern literatures j and, without minimizing the im- portance of Oriental influences, especially that of the Bible, one must recognize a close unity which includes all Europe, Russia, the United States, and the South American literatures.

This ideal was envisaged and, within their limited means, fulfilled, by the founders of literary history in the early nineteenth century, such men as the Schlegels, Sismondi, Bouterwek, and Hallam. The first theories of comparative litera- 42 Theory of Literature ture, the books by Karayev and Posnett, 13 were largely under the influence of the sociological conceptions of Herbert Spencer and drew far too close a parallelism between the growth of institu- tions and that of literature.

But a return to the ideals and ambi- tions of the great masters of general literary historiography is overdue, whatever modifications we may make today in the de- tails of their methods and however ampler our sources of infor- mation may be. The study of comparative literature in this sense will make high demands on the linguistic proficiencies of our scholars. It asks for a widen- ing of perspectives, a suppression of local and provincial senti- ments, not easy to achieve. Yet literature is one, as art and humanity are one; and in this conception lies the future of his- torical literary studies.

Within this enormous area — in practice, identical with all lit- erary history — there are, no doubt, subdivisions sometimes run- ning along linguistic lines. There are, first of all, the groups of the three main linguistic families in Europe — the Germanic, the Romance, and the Slavic literatures. The Romance literatures have particularly frequently been studied in close interconnec- tion, from the days of Bouterwek up to Leonardo Olschki's par- tially successful attempt to write a history of them all for the medieval period.

While most of our genres de- scend from the literature of Greece and Rome, they were very considerably modified and augmented during the Middle Ages. Even the history of metrics, though closely bound up with the individual linguistic systems, is international.

Furthermore, the great literary movements and styles of modern Europe the Renaissance, the Baroque, Neo-Classicism, Romanticism, Real- General, Comfarative y and National Literature 43 ism, Symbolism far exceed the boundaries of one nation, even though there are significant national differences between the workings out of these styles. This emphasis was due to the very close association between Romantic mostly linguistic nationalism and the rise of mod- ern organized literary history.

It continues today through such practical influences as the virtual identification, especially in this country, of the teaching of literature and the teaching of a language. The result, in this country, has been an extraordinary lack of contact between the students of English, German, and French literature.

Each of these groups bears a completely dif- ferent imprint and uses different methods. These disjunctions are in part, doubtless, unavoidable, simply because most men live in but a single linguistic medium ; and yet they lead to grotesque consequences when literary problems are discussed only with regard to views expressed in the particular language and only with reference to texts and documents in that language.

Though in certain problems of artistic style, meter, and even genre, the linguistic differences between the European literatures will be important, it is clear that for many problems of the history of ideas, including critical ideas, such distinctions are untenable j artificial cross sections are drawn through homogeneous ma- terials, and histories are written concerning ideological echoes by chance expressed in English or German or French. The excessive attention to one vernacular is especially detrimental to the study of medieval literature, since in the Middle Ages Latin was the foremost literary language, and Europe formed a very close intellectual unity.

A history of literature during the Middle Ages in England which neglects the vast amount of writings in Latin and Anglo-Norman gives a false picture of England's lit- erary situation and general culture. This recommendation of comparative literature does not, of course, imply neglecting the study of individual national litera- tures.

Indeed, it is just the problem of "nationality" and of the distinct contributions of the individual nations to this general literary process which should be realized as central. Instead of being studied with theoretical clarity, the problem has been 44 Theory of Literature blurred by nationalistic sentiment and racial theories. To isolate the exact contributions of English literature to general literature, a fascinating problem, might lead to a shift of perspective and an altered evaluation, even of the major figures.

Within each national literature there arise similar problems of the exact shares of regions and cities. Such an exaggerated theory as that of Josef Nadler, 18 who professes to be able to discern the traits and characteristics of each German tribe and region and its reflections in literature, should not deter us from the considera- tion of these problems, rarely investigated with any command of facts and any coherent method.

Much that has been written on the role of New England, the Middle West, and the South in the history of American literature, and most of the writings on regionalism, amounts to no more than the expression of pious hopes, local pride, and resentment of centralizing powers. Any objective analysis will have to distinguish questions concerning the racial descent of authors and sociological questions concern- ing provenience and setting from questions concerning the actual influence of the landscape and questions of literary tradition and fashion.

Problems of "nationality" become especially complicated if we have to decide that literatures in the same language are dis- tinct national literatures, as American and modern Irish as- suredly are. Such a question as why Goldsmith, Sterne, and Sheridan do not belong to Irish literature, while Yeats and Joyce do, needs an answer.

Are there independent Belgian, Swiss, and Austrian literatures? It is not very easy to determine the point at which literature written in America ceased to be "colonial English" and became an independent national literature.

Is it the mere fact of political independence? Is it the national con- sciousness of the authors themselves? Is it the use of national subject matter and "local color"? Or is it the rise of a definite national literary style? Only when we have reached decisions on these problems shall we be able to write histories of national literature which are not simply geographical or linguistic categories, shall we be able to analyze the exact way in which each national literature enters into European tradition.

Universal and national literatures im- plicate each other. A pervading European convention is modified Generaly Comparative, and National Literature 45 in each country: there are also centers of radiation in the individ- ual countries, and eccentric and individually great figures who set off one national tradition from the other.

To be able to describe the exact share of the one and the other would amount to know- ing much that is worth knowing in the whole of literary history. Enormous acumen and diligence have gone into the solution of these problems j yet the literary student will have to realize that these labors are preliminary to the ultimate task of scholarship. Often the im- portance of these operations is particularly great, since without them, critical analysis and historical understanding would be hopelessly handicapped.

This is true in the case of a half-buried literary tradition such as that of Anglo-Saxon literature ; but for the student of most modern literatures, concerned with the literary meaning of the works, the importance of these studies should not be overrated. They have either been needlessly ridi- culed because of their pedantry or glorified for their supposed or real exactitude. The neatness and perfection with which certain problems can be solved have always attracted minds which enjoy orderly procedure and the intricacies of manipulation, quite apart from any final significance which they may have.

These studies need to be criticized adversely only when they usurp the place of other studies and become a specialty mercilessly imposed on every student of literature. Literary works have been edited meticulously, passages emended and debated in the greatest de- tail which, from a literary or even historical point of view, are not worth discussing at all.

Or, if they are worth it, have had only the kind of attention the textual critic gives to a book. Like other human activities, these exercises often become ends in themselves. Among these preliminary labors one has to distinguish two levels of operations: i the assembling and preparing of a text; and 2 the problems of chronology, authenticity, authorship, collaboration, revision and the like, which have been frequently 49 50 Theory of Literature described as "higher criticism," a rather unfortunate term de- rived from Biblical studies.

It will be useful to distinguish the stages in these labors. There is, first, the assembling and collecting of the materials, whether in manuscript or in print. In English literary history, this work has been accomplished almost completely, though in the present century a few fairly important works like The Book of Margery Kempe, Medwall's Fulgens and Lucrece. In recent decades the discoveries of Leslie Hotson on Marlowe or the recovery of the Boswell papers may be quoted as well-known instances.

In the field of oral literature the assembly of materials has its own special problems, such as the discovery of a competent singer or narrator, tact and skill in inducing him to sing or to recite, the method of recording his recitations by phonograph or by phonetic writing, and many others. In finding manuscript materials one has to meet problems of a purely practical nature, such as personal acquaintance with the heirs of the writer, one's own social prestige and financial restrictions, and frequently some kind of detective skill.

Since the majority of students can find their source ma- terials in libraries, a knowledge of the most important libraries, and familiarity with their catalogues as well as other reference books, is undoubtedly, in many ways, an important equipment of almost every student of literature. The number and size of editions may throw light on questions of success and reputation ; the dis- The Ordering and Establishing of Evidence 5 I tinctions between editions may allow us to trace the stages of the author's revision and thus throw light on problems of the genesis and evolution of the work of art.

A skillfully edited bibliography such as the CBEL maps out vast areas for research ; and special- ized bibliographies such as Greg's Bibliography of English Drama, Johnson's Spenser Bibliography, Macdonald's Dryden Bibliography, Griffith's Pope 5 may be guides to many problems of literary history. Such bibliographies may necessitate investi- gations into printing house practices, booksellers' and publishers' histories; and they require knowledge of printers' devices, water- marks, type fonts, compositors' practices, and bindings.

Some- thing like a library science, or certainly an immense erudition on the history of book production, is needed to decide questions which, by their implications as to date, order of editions, etc. Editing is often an extremely complex series of labors, inclusive of both interpre- tation and historical research. There are editions which in the introductions and notes contain important criticism. Indeed, an edition may be a complex of almost every kind of literary study.

Editions have played a very important role in the history of literary studies : they may — to quote a recent example, like F. Robinson's edition of Chaucer — serve as a repository of learn- ing, as a handbook of all the knowledge about an author. But taken in its central meaning as the establishment of the text of a work, editing has its own problems, among which actual "tex- tual criticism" is a highly developed technique with a long his- tory especially in classical and Biblical scholarship.

MS materials will neces- sitate, first, a knowledge of paleography, a study which has established very subtle criteria for the dating of MSS and has produced useful manuals for the deciphering of abbreviations. Very complex questions of the exact relationships between these MSS may arise.

An investigation should lead to a classification which can be made graphically clear by the construction of a pedigree. Greg 10 have worked out elaborate techniques for which they claim scientific certainty, though other scholars, such as Bedier and Shepard, 11 have ar- gued that there is no completely objective method of establishing classifications.

While this is hardly the place to reach a decision on such a question, we would lean toward the latter view. We would conclude that, in most cases, it is advisable to edit the MS which is adjudged to be nearest the author's own without attempting the reconstruction of some hypothetical "original. The experiences with the sixty sur- viving MSS of Piers Plowman and the eighty-three MSS of the Canterbury Tales 12 lead, we think, to conclusions mostly un- favorable to the idea that there ever existed an authorized re- cension or archetype analogous to the definitive edition of a modern work.

The process of recension, i. Otherwise we could not eliminate "mechanical" errors, misreadings, miswritings, associations, or even conscious changes of the scribes. Much must be left, after all, to the lucky guess- work of the critic, to his taste and linguistic feeling. Modern editors have, we think rightly, become more and more reluctant to indulge in such guesses, but the reaction in favor of the diplo- matic text seems to have gone too far when the editor reproduces The Ordering and Establishing of Evidence 53 all abbreviations and scribal errors and all the vagaries of the original punctuation.

This may be important for other editors or sometimes for linguists but is a needless impediment for the literary scholar. We plead not for modernized texts but for read- able texts which will avoid unnecessary guesses and changes and give reasonable help by minimizing attention to purely scribal conventions and habits.

The problems of editing printed materials are usually some- what simpler than those of editing manuscripts, though in gen- eral they are similar. But there is a distinction, formerly not always understood. In the case of nearly all classical MSS, we are met with documents from very different times and places, centuries remote from the original, and hence are free to use most of these MSS, as each may be presumed to be derived from some ultimate ancient authority.

In the case of books, however, usually only one or two editions have any kind of independent authority. A choice has to be made of a basic edition, which will usually be either the first edition or the last edition supervised by the author. In some cases, such as Whitman's Leaves of Grass, which underwent many successive additions and revisions, or Pope's Dunciad, which exists in at least two widely divergent versions, it may be necessary, for a critical edition, to print all or both versions.

With Elizabethan plays, one may have to come to the conclusion that sometimes there was no final version which can be reconstructed. As in oral poetry e. It was long be- fore editors of ballads gave up the search for it. Percy and Scott "contaminated" different versions freely and even rewrote them , while the first scientific editors such as Motherwell chose one version as superior and original. Finally Child de- cided to print all versions.

Besides, there was a special class of bad "quartos" which were apparently printed either from memorial reconstruction or from actors' fragmentary parts or possibly from a primitive shorthand version. In recent decades, very much attention has been paid to these problems, and the Quartos of Shakespeare have been re- classified after the discoveries of Pollard and Greg. Sort order. Shelves: ebook-owned, crime-and-thrillers, like-nothing-i-ve-ever-read, non-fiction.

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