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Siamo soli graffiti da un raggio di sole torrent

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siamo soli graffiti da un raggio di sole torrent

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Prende il suo nome da Galato che pare fosse un guerriero che usava questa grotta come rifugio. Scripta Manent, Grosseto, pp. Il sito si trova lungo la strada che da Soddo porta a Bele e successivamente alla Valle del fiume Omo. Si tratta di una grande pietra nera a forma di grande panettone Fig. The site is situated on the road from Soddo to the Omo River through Bele.

It is a big black stone, with a shape of a big panettone Fig. In the area around the rock shelter there are many stone tools in obsidian with fragments of pottery and grind stones. Because of its strategic position it is easy to assume an early use of the shelter. From the top of the Black Stone is possible to see the entire plain to the Omo River.

So far the team surveyed the rock shelter Fig. Le trachiti sono rocce vulcaniche effusive, originatesi per cristallizzazione frazionata di magmi basaltici. At their edges, at a height of about m. The geological and geomorfological features described will mainly concern the outcrops, the soil, the hydrography and the natural cave of the area, which is an important prehistoric site currently under study.

Thanks to a microscopic exam of a thin section of a sample of rock, taken from the south-eastern outside wall of the cave, we found that the typical lithotype of the site and of all the surrounding area is a trachyte. Trachytes are effusive volcanic rocks deriving from the fractional crystallization of basaltic magmas. Molto spesso queste superfici dure sono ricoperte da patine lisce di colore rosso intenso.

The high level of aridity of the climate characterizing this zone generated, both on the surface of the outcropping rocks and on the walls of the cave, some alterations crusts and some surface patinas that look like the desert varnish. These forms of alteration are due to the resurfacing, by capillarity, of metallic minerals present in the rock that, once reached the outer part of the outcrop, accumulate generating tough layers that are 0.

These tough surfaces are very often recovered by smooth deep red patinas. All the rocks of the area present this kind of alteration except for an outcrop of basaltic rock that can be observed along the river Weyo, about km northwards from our area of survey. On these rocks the alteration generated different colourings, ranging from yellow al rosso, che hanno obliterato completamente il colore grigio della roccia basaltica.

Lungo la ripida mulattiera di circa m, che collega il terrazzo sul quale abbiamo allestito il campo al fiume Weyo, affiora uno splendido esempio di trachiti basaltiche colonnari Fig. East of the river, in an area characterized by an intense solifluction, one can observe an extensive deposit of amorphous and polycrystalline aluminium masses Fig. Along the steep mule track about m long that connects the terrace on which we have set our base camp by the river Weyo we can see a splendid sample of columnar basaltic trachytes Fig.

Along with trachytes there is a thick slimy-clayey sheet that is particularly observable at the feet of the steep slope of the rocky wall where the cave is. Here clayey heaps generated slides that, especially during the rare Ethiopian rains, become so impervious to create some problems of climbing also for the skilful locals. The origin of the clay must traced back to the alteration of the minerals composing the volcanic rock.

The essential silicate minerals of the trachitic rocks are the plagioclases andesine and labradorite that present in their chemical composition some metallic elements such as aluminium. Water, seeping through the rock, alters its minerals, causing the solution of the metallic ions and depositing the less soluble substances, known as residual products. They still contain silicate and aluminium and originate clays thanks to a process known as syallitic alteration, which is an argillation of the original minerals of the rock.

These clays, when in contact with the air and water, undergo an oxidation of the metallic ions in this case aluminium taking on the typical deep red colour. It is very difficult to observe this colour of the soil because of the argillation of the minerals transforming no originario in un suolo rosso ed assai polveroso Fig.

La scarsa vegetazione provoca intensi soliflussi che in alcuni punti rendono affiorante la roccia madre. The sparse vegetation produces intense solifluctions which in some points make the paren rock crop out. Further news about the origin of the colouring of the soil can be found in the previous paragraph.

All the wide glade, which is situated between these two rivers, presents several streams, many of which totally dry, derived from the heavy rains that for few days a year fall on these zones. Si presentano come cataste di pietre 48 Fig. In these pools few litres of water stagnate. They represent a source of nourishment for hyenas and numerous herds of zebu. Moving southwards, along the course of the river Weyo, it is possible to observe numerous canyons, some of which a little more than 1 metre wide and metres deep present a northeast-southwest direction, almost orthogonal to the main river.

They look like heaps of stones arranged in an irregular way, characterized by a subspherical or, in some cases, slightly disposte in modo irregolare, caratterizzate da una forma subsferica o in alcuni casi debolmente spigolosa. Their formation must be attributed to the meteoric weathering which, working from the outside to the inside of the sound rock and privileging faults and edges instead of the sound faces of the lithic block, produces a not homogeneous erosion, so that the rock takes on a vaguely roundish appearance.

In many cases these blocks have a protecting function for the underneath soil, as it avoids its erosion. Qua viene intagliato ed asportato materiale da un terrazzo alluvionale Fig. Al centro del fiume si trova una grande barra longitudinale, caratterizzata da un accumulo di grossi massi e ciottoli basaltici Fig. Here the ground belonging to the alluvial terrace is carved, removed Fig.

In the middle of the river there is a big longitudinal bar, characterized by a heap of big boulders and basaltic pebbles Fig. The trachytic rock composing this rocky wall, presents all the geologic characteristics previously described and it is just here that is possible to observe the forms of alteration and the clayey heaps that have already been described. During the archaeological excavations, it was possible to observe the unaltered trachjtic soil, characterized by the typical grey-yellow colour, as well as the overhanging red horizons, the colour of which is determined by the hydratation of the ferrous minerals.

The cave is situated at a height of 2. Alcune di queste possono essere ancora adesso osservate in tutte le loro fasi evolutive. Inside the cave along a fault of the internal wall, the real cave the plan and section of which are made available below originated. The processes that generated tha cave are to be found in the tectonic activity of the area: on the wall lots of faults can be observed, they can be traced back to three different phases of deformation. The presence of small dislocations, considered thrust faults, enables to associate the cause of this first kind of faults to compression forces.

Some of these can be nowadays observed in all their evolutive phases. Si tratta di una piccola grotta con riparo prospiciente Fig. It is a small cave with a shelter facing it, Fig. On that point the river can be forded and women and children from the nearest villages come over there to have their winter supplies and to water the cattle.

Some of the elders in the people attribute the engravings in the shelter to the work of a legendary personage, not exactly specified. The shelter is about 14 m wide, and has an average depth of 3 m. All the engravings are placed on the shelter faces, mostly on currently inaccessible wall zones, while the facing cave has no engraving. The patina on the strokes is quite homogeneous, being always slightly lighter than the rock.

All the engravings have been made by a semicircular stroke. Nel dettaglio, si possono riconoscere otto nuclei principali di incisioni procedendo da est verso ovest : 1 gruppo composto da una figura antropomorfa maschile acefala accostata ad una figura di bovide eseguita in senso verticale. The height of the human figure is of The cave in the middle measures Le incisioni degli animali misurano fra 20,4 cm e 39,6 cm; i segni simbolici o astratti fino a 20 cm; la figura con coppelle, complessivamente, 41,2 cm Fig.

Le dimensioni sono: larghezza 19,6 cm; altezza 23,6 cm Fig. In some cases it is difficult to read the engravings because they are shabby. In the middle of the panel there is a figure formed by adjacent rows of cups; taking into consideration the condition of the patina that engraving seems to be more recent than the other ones.

The measures of animal representations range between The dimensions of the animals represented their range between The patina of that engraving appears to be lighter than the one on other engravings, thus it could be more recent. Dimensions: width 19,6 cm; height Many modern strokes have been superimposed upon them, due to the sharpening of metal weapons, probably iron axes like those largely spread among the people. The largest measure of the semicircular pattern is 1 of Vista la totale mancanza di dati crono- Fig.

The whole group measures- Some other engravings are likely to have existed on the right of that figure, but only weak traces, unreadable to the naked eye, are left, because of the atmospheric agents that have worn out the rock in that part which is outside the shelter.

As the chronostratigraphic data are 57 LUCA BACHECHI stratigrafici, i confronti ed i collegamenti fra il sito di Harurona e le altre stazioni etiopiche con arte rupestre sono possibili esclusivamente in base ai caratteri stilistici delle figure incise. Le incisioni relative ai bovidi riproducono degli animali stilizzati, esclusivamente senza gobba, disegnati di profilo e prevalentemente volti verso destra; le dimensioni delle incisioni che raffigurano questi animali sono comprese fra 20 e 40 cm circa Figg.

At Harurona, as well as in many other African localities with prehistoric art, there are two predominant patterns: the representations of cattle and symbols; at Harurona the human figure appears only once, and it is tightly linked with the representation of an ox. The engravings of cattle reproduce stylized animals, without hump, drawn in profile and generally facing right; the dimensions of these engravings range approximately between 20 and 40 cm Figg.

In Eastern Africa, the chronological sequence of pastoral art is almost exclusively based on the style of the most wide- esclusivamente sullo stile delle figure di maggiore diffusione, quelle dei bovidi. Le figure di bovidi appartenenti a que- Fig. In that area, the appearance of late-prehistory rock art is marked by peculiar features known as the Ethiopian-Arabian style Cervicek , — 79, Joussaume , an artistic current which spread mainly among Central Arabja, Hidjaz, Eritrea, Ethiopia and, to a smaller extent, Northern Africa Cervicek — 8.

The Ethiopian-Arabian style has been divided into two different stages Cervicek — 79, Joussaume : the first, restricted to Southern and Eastern Ethiopia, is called Surre from the name of the eponymous site, Surre or Genda- Biftou, in the Ethiopian region of Harar; the second, called Dahthami Anati from the name of a locality in Central Arabia, is characterized by a larger geographical diffusion Central Arahia, Eritrea, Eastern Ethiopia, Northern Somaliland and by a wider range of drawing styles; comparing the second stage with the older figures, a trend towards schematism can be recognized: animal bodies lengthen, horns bend, ears are completely missing, heads are never distinguished from the body.

The more recent phase of that second stage is marked by the appearance of zebus, camels and a large series of schematic or abstract patterns in the iconographic list. The engravings at Harurona show no remarkable feature, with the only exception of a cow included in a group Fig.

Il significato, come abbiamo detto, rimane oscuro. Nel nostro caso si potrebbe ipotizzare la rappresentazione, mediante la doppia spirale, di una figura umana, creata mediante la dissociazione di alcuni elementi e attraverso una metamorfosi in senso curvilineo Graziosi , pp.

It is generally the ox which is represented, but in that engraving a cow with a double spiral on the left can be observed, and a star-shaped or solar symbol on the right. The meaning, as we have just said, remains obscure.

The spiral is an allover widespread pattern no matter what the period: it has been associated with any kind of Agures, or it appears isolated, it is formed by strokes similar one to the other. So there is practically no possibility to attribute a definite meaning to it. In this case we may suppose the double spiral could represent a human figure, created by a dissociation of elements and by a bending metamorphosis Graziosi 63 — Anyway, we point up that a man-oxsolar symbol association can be found among the paintings at Laga Oda, although it is rendered in a different graphic way Cervicek Fig, Lo stile di questa figura Fig.

Il fatto che la figura sia priva di testa potrebbe, in base a quanto affermato da Cervicek , p. Tutti i restanti motivi, simbolici o astratti, presenti nel nostro sito appaiono meno caratterizzanti. The only human representation at Harurona, rendered in a very stylized way and without head, appears to be linked with the figure of an ox Fig.

Although it has no precise comparison with the style of the Ethiopian ones, that representation is quite similar to other human figures found among the paintings in Eritrea Graziosi : trunk and genitals are represented by a single vertical stroke, arms and legs are reproduced by two bent down lines crossing the trunk.

Cervicek , note 49 asserts that the figure without its head could be considered as a peculiar stylistic feature of the Ethiopian-Arabian artistic trend. The remaining symbolic or abstract patterns found at Harurona appear to be less distinctive. Figures formed by one or more segments, straight or curved Fig.

The quadrangular figure with the interior divided into four parts with two symbols Fig. Moreover, that engraving seems to be more recent than the other ones at Harurona, taking into consideration the condition of the patina.

Anche quello dei cerchi con croce interna Fig. Myers , ; in Europe that symbol is linked with the cult of the Sun since the Neolithic Maringer — ; the same symbolic patterns can be identified in the Nubian C-Group pottery Cervicek Moltissimi sono i significati che si potrebbero attribuire alle figure formate da gruppi di coppelle Figg. La grande figura centrale formata da file di coppelle Fig. Rimangono infine di significato totalmente sconosciuto il gruppo composto da figure semilunate e circolari Fig.

A large number of different meanings could be attributed to the figures made of cups Figg. The big central figure formed by a row of cups Fig. Taking into consideration the patina, that engraving is supposed to be less ancient than the other representations at Harurona. The meanings of the grouped halfmoon-shaped and circular figures Fig. Is the latter a map? The only thing we do know is that all the lines making it up have been definitely drawn at the same time.

Gli unici dati utili per dare un inquadramento cronologico alle incisioni di Harurona, mancando completamente quelli provenienti dalle evidenze archeologiche, sono costituiti dai caratteri stilistici delle incisioni di bovide che, come abbiamo visto, rientrano nel primo stadio dello stile Etiopico-arabo. Cervicek ; Joussaume e in tal senso andranno dunque inquadrate anche le incisioni di Harurona. As the archaeological tokens are completely missing, the only data usable to date chronologically the Harurona engravings are the stylistic features used in representing cattle; those features can be well included in the first stage of Ethiopian-Arabian style which can be dated to the period between the end of the IIIrd and the whole Ilnd millennium B.

Cervicek — 79, Joussaume That chronological dating is suggested by style affinities with artefact assemblages Clark and art Cervicek — a of the Nubian C-Group; so we can date the Harurona engravings to the same period. To sum up, the new prehistoric locality of Harurona represents a further evidence of the flourishing of art in the Ethiopian area during the last millennia before Christ; the prevailing representation of cattle shows the fundamental role that those animals played in the ideology of natives who were mainly breeders.

That site enriches our knowledge of the Southern Ethiopian zone which has yet to be discovered in all its aspects, as far as archaeology is concerned. Moreover, by making archaeological excavations, Harurona could surely provide us with valuable cultural and chronological results that would be important to fill the gap concerning Eastern African recent prehistory — a gap essentially due to the poor archaeological data we have at our disposal.

Tarik 2: Paideuma XVII; Cambridge, pp. Azania — Addis Abeba. Paris, A. Vganda Journal BAR international Series, , Oxford. Kush, 6: — Kush, 8: Nel , durante il rilievo e la documentazione delle incisioni rupestri, nel riparo era stata notata la presenza di un importante deposito di origine antropica, contenente numerosi manufatti litici.

Per questo motivo e per cercare di ottenere elementi utili per la determinazione delle popolazioni che, durante il II millennio a. These engravings have been studied since The rock-shelter is situated in the Wolayta region, only a few kilometres south of Gesuba village Offa.

The shelter was created by the erosion of the right wall side of the river Weyo and it opens right in front of a cave: Harurona Cave. In , during the recording and documentation of the engravings, the researchers noticed a deep and extended anthropic deposit rich of lithic tools. Still today we know very little about the prehistoric and protohistoric phases in the south of Ethiopia and we have very little information about the human groups settled in that area before the arrive of the makers of the phallic and anthropomorphic stelae that we know to be very numerous in the area Joussaume The only information we can collect come from the study of anthropic deposits rich of chrono-stratigraphic sequences.

For this reason and to try to identify the population of the II millennium B. C who made the engravings on Harurona walls, in November-December a big excavation of Harurona archaeological deposit was carried on. Il sondaggio Figg. La stratigrafia del deposito Fig.

Si tratta di 68 Fig. Through the sondage Figg. This sondage gave us a sequence of archaeological sediments divided in 4 layers and almost 5 phases from the end of the Pleistocene through all the Olocene. The stratigraphic sequence of the deposit Fig.

Lithic artefacts are well present through all the sequence, from the most ancient to the modern. In the ancient layers there is no evidence of pottery or metal. In the deepest layer Fig. La parte media della sequenza Fig. Dal momento che su nessuno dei blocchi giacenti nel deposito sono state riscontrate tracce di incisioni, il deposito inferiore risulta con certezza cronologicamente precedente alla realizzazione delle incisioni sulle pareti, mentre quello posto sopra i blocchi rocciosi potrebbe essere precedente o anche posteriore al momento delle incisioni.

The preliminary analysis of the lithic industry of this layer is placing this obsidian industry in phase A of the Ethiopian Blade Tool Tradition Bernett Fig. With this technique was possible to have long flakes for geometrical microlithic artefacts which are widely spread in our deposit with a good quantity of common stone tools. Because this deposit is rich of cores we can happily say that the stone tools were fabricated in situ and the shelter was a proper operative base camp.

The middle phase of the archaeological sequence Fig. We have therefore a phase previous the collapse and a phase after the collapse Fig. With this information and knowing that there are not engravings on the blocks, we can say that the deposit under the collapsed block is chronologically earlier than the engravings of the shelter. The deposit on top of the collapsed blocks could be either previous or after the engravings. From the point of view of the artefacts it seams there is no difference between the compositions of the two deposits.

The lithic industry is the same, with more evidence of michrolithic tools as circle segments also in the substratum Fig. The upper layer Fig. Lo strato superiore Fig. Tali elementi sono stati inviati al Beta 72 Fig. At this moment geological and palaeontological analysis are under interpretation and this could bring more information for the understanding of our deposit and the reconstruction of the original ecosystem of our deposit.

During the excavation rare organic elements have been found, among them only one residual of coal from the most ancient layer, at 1. This date will go with the few ones already published related to the Later Stone Age of Ethiopia. In specific this date is the first one coming from a deposit in situ from South Ethiopia at the end of the Analytic inc.

Laboratory in Florida, che mediante tecniche di accelerazione AMS ha ottenuto una datazione di Si tratta infatti di uno dei rarissimi casi di sequenza stratigrafica che occupi un periodo cronologico relativamente lungo, Fig. An extensive study of Harurona lithic industry will contribute to the understanding of a cultural continuity in the characteristic of Phase B and C.

Our archaeological research in Harurona is a very important step point in the generic research of the prehistoric and protohistoric phases of South Ethiopia. It is rare to find a deposit that stretches for over These manifestations include most of all paintings and engravings representing naturalistic or geometric figures of men and animals together with abstract and geometric symbols. The main number of these manifestations seems to be located in the North and the South of the continent, Today we can see that there is a third major group of rock art manifestations as big and important as the other two and it is located in the central part of the continent including: Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Gibuti and Somalia.

Despite the fact that rock art manifestations in other parts of Africa were already known in the mid XIX century, the rock art manifestations of South Ethiopia have been brought to the attention of scholars only recently. It was F. Anfray the first to take an interest in the rock art manifestations of the South, after him were R. Joussaume and the writer himself. Joussaume e dallo scrivente. Borisa North Omo : sei grandi massi rocciosi Anfray , pp. Godana Kindjo Sidama : sulla parete di una scarpata rocciosa alla base del quale scorre il fiume Godana Le Quellec, Abegaz ; Bachechi b ; 9.

Here 10 sites with rock art manifestations were found. Akirsa rock shelter North Omo : two caves next to each other opening in the cliff on the river Akirsa Anfray , p. Borisa North Omo : six big rocks Anfray , pp. Galato Gongolo rock shelter North Omo : little cave situated in a small canyon at 5 meters over the river Anfray , pp.

Harurona rock shelter North Omo : it is a shelter open in front of a cave situated on a limestone riff next to the river Weyo Bachechi ; ; ; 5. Rimane viva infine la speranza di poter stabilire con precisione, attraverso gli studi, anche una datazione assoluta per queste manifestazioni artistiche che costituiscono la prima evidenza di pensiero concettuale conosciuta in Etiopia meridionale.

Together with a survey and analysis of the sites, an archaeological excavation was to be carried out to understand the chronology of the rock art manifestations. The main goal of this research is also to improve the perception of the local population and local authority towards the archaeological heritage of the area in order to preserve it.

Very often the archaeological remains are vandalized not only by the natural erosion but also by the lack of knowledge. The locals use the engravings as game boards, not really understanding their importance. This research also aims to get an absolute chronology of the south-Ethiopic rock art manifestations that are so important because they represent the first recognised conceptual thought so far discovered in this area.

Si tratta di una piccola grotta che si apre in una formazione trachitica situata circa 5 metri al di sopra del livello del fiume Shapha Fig. Le incisioni presenti sulle pareti sono costituite da due soli soggetti: 1 sulla parete ovest della grotta si trova la figura di un piccolo bovide 25 cm di lun- 82 Fig. It is a narrow cave open on a trachyte wall 5m above the river Shapha Fig.

The cave is 6 m long and 8m deep. The roof is at 4. The floor is an archaeological deposit, very thick and rich with obsidian microlithic tools. The engravings on the walls represent only two subjects: 1 On the west wall of the cave there is the figure of a bovid 25 cm long in profile, a light basso-relievo, with long horns, without hunchback and a little head.

This is very similar to other representations in the South of the country Fig. La patina presente sui tratti incisi si presenta diversa da quella della roccia di supporto. The patina on the glyphs is different from the one on the walls and the line of the incisions is semicircular. It looks like these marks are the result of sharpening of metal tools or weapon like the iron axes still in use today by the local population Figg.

The Rock Art of this part of Ethiopia lacks of organization between the abstract representations and the figurative ones. Anyhow there are rare graphic structures independent from the others covering an entire panel and seam to represent only one concept. It is not easy to give an explanation to the engravings and so far all the interpretations given are very vague.

A circa trenta metri di distanza dalla roccia con le incisioni si trova un piccolo Fig. The population living in the area is the Guji Oromo. At about 30 m away from the rock with the engravings there is a seasonal channel called Ejerssa. The rock is a big piece of very compact limestone Fig.

Si tratta di un grande blocco roccioso di calcare compatto Fig. The top part of the rock is flat and its dimensions are 2. There are 6 figures of bovid, 1 anthropomorphic figure, one circular sign and few cup marks Fig. The patina of the engravings is the same, slightly lighter than the rest. The line of the engravings has a V profile.

Incision 1 Little representation of a bovid: 17 cm by 8 cm. It is facing the left hand side and the horns are very lightly represented. Incision 2 Representation of bovid: 19 cm by 12 cm. It is facing the left hand side. Rivolto a sinistra, presenta le corna, in forma di arco, con ampia apertura 19 cm. Sembra non avere testa anche se esiste un accenno del collo. Misure: cm 15 X Presenta corna asimmetriche in forma di tenaglia.

La patina delle coppelle appare simile a quelle 88 The opening between the horns is 17 cm and they have an arch line. Incision 3 Representation of bovid: 30 cm by 15 cm. The left horn is straight while the right one is curved, spiral shaped.

The animal is facing left. Incision 4 Representation of bovid: 30 cm by 18 cm, facing left. The horns are arch shaped with an opening of 19 cm. Incision 5 Representation of an anthropomorphic figure, the only one on site. The style is very minimal with the arms stretched horizontally. There is not a head even if the line of the neck can been seen. The figure is 17 cm in length and the distance covered by the stretched arms is 20 cm. Incision 6 Circular mark with a cup in the middle slightly grooved: 15 cm by15 cm.

Incision 7 Representation of bovid facing the right hand side. The head of the animal is missing because the rock surface collapsed in that point. The dimensions of what is left are 20 cm by 15 cm. Incision 8 Representation of bovid facing right: 30 cm by 11 cm. The horns are not symmetric almost with the shape of pincers. Other incisions Next to the incisions n. The patina on the cups looks like the delle altre incisioni. Il fatto che le figure siano prive di testa potrebbe, in base a quanto sostenuto da P.

Cervicek 3 , costituire una caratteristica stilistica peculiare della corrente Etiopico-araba. Once again the stylistic characters of the incisions representing bovidis put them in the in the same context of the first phase Surre of the Ethiopic-Arab style. The only anthropomorphic representation is very minimalist and with no head. The style is similar to pictograms of Eritrea Graziosi and similar to the anthropomorphic representation of Harurona cave Bachechi, in this paper.

In both the representations the bodies are made out of a single vertical line and a curved horizontal line represents the arms Fig. Cervicek wrote 3 , the missing heads could represent a characteristic of the Ethiopic-Arab style. About the circular mark and the cups, usually they are representations typical of a later period, the second phase Dahthami of the Ethiopic-Arab style, but in our case the patina that covers them is the same one of the other incisions therefore they belong to the first phase.

In Harurona as well we had the association of bovids with an anthropomorphic figure and other symbolic signs. In Harurona like in Ejerssa Gara Hallo naturalistic representations were together with groups of cups. Entrambi i lati della piccola gola che delimitano il corso del torrente sono ricoperti da una densa vegetazione di alberi di olivastro e di acacia. Le incisioni dei bovidi 90 We can well say that our representations belong chronologically to the first phase of the Ethiopic-Arab style between the end of the III and II millennium BC.

The engravings are on a dark grey limestone rock that is sitting on top of other stones at 3 m south of the pond Fig. The patina over the two animals and human is lighter compared to the one of the surface, but darker compared to the patina over the other representations.

La figura umana Fig. Presenta testa rotonda, con una coppella centrale, vita sottile e gli arti superiori e inferiori aperti e larghi. Misura 55 cm di altezza. I materiali ceramici Figg. Si tratta di un soggetto originale nel Fig. The figures are facing the right hand side. The animal at the top is 45 cm large by 19 cm high.

The animal at the bottom is 55 cm long and 18 cm high. The stylistic elements belong to the first phase Surre of the Ethiopic-Arab style. Human figure fig 10, 2 It is an anthropomorphic figure holding a spear in its left hand. It has a round head with a central cup, thin waist and wide spread limbs. It is 55 cm high. This type of armed warrior seemed to belong to an Eritrean style and chronologically is around the mid I millennium BC. Other incisions Figg.

The kettle jebena is still in use in Ethiopia for coffee Fig. It is typical of the iconographic repertoire of the rock art of this area. Venti metri ad ovest del sito si trova un piccolo fiume denominato Godana. Le incisioni si trovano a circa 2 metri di altezza rispetto al livello attuale del fiume e si estendono per circa 7 metri di lunghezza.

Si tratta di quattro figure di bovidi eseguite con tecnica a martellina e, in un caso, mediante incisione con tratto piuttosto profondo e con profilo a V. Le figure dei bovidi sono rivolte verso sud, trovandosi voltate verso destra rispetto a chi le osserva e la loro morfologia riconduce ancora al primo stadio Surre dello stile Etiopico-arabo.

Figura n. The engravings are facing west on a riff covered by thick vegetation, mostly coffee trees. It is called Dayo. The riff is protected by a big rock overlooking it. It looks like a rock shelter. The engravings are at 2 m over the river level and they spread for 7 m.

In one of them the line is deeper with a V profile. The patina covering them is lighter than the one covering the wall. The animals are facing south. Their style is clearly the first phase Surre of the Ethiopic-Arab style. Incision 1 Figg. It is facing the right hand side.

The udders are small. Le dimensioni e la posizione di questa raffigurazione rispetto alla n. Si tratta della sola figura eseguita mediante semplice incisione. Misura 38 cm di lunghezza per 9 cm di altezza. Le corna sono rappresentate in forma di tenaglia. The lower horn is curved; the top one is straight vertically. The animal has a thick neck Incision 2 Figg. It is situated only 9 cm below the previous one. It is 26 cm by 11 cm. The front leg is linked to the horns therefore the animal is without the neck.

The horns are curved towards the inside with one of the extremities toward the outside. The dimensions and the position of this animal make us think that probably it is the representation of a young one even if the horns are quite developed. Incision 3 Fig. It is a simple figure made through a simple incision of the rock surface. Its dimensions are 38 cm in lentgh, 9 cm in high. The horns looke like a kind of tweezers.

Consiste nella raffigurazione di un toro che misura 33 cm di lunghezza e 17 cm di altezza. It is a bull of 33 cm by 17 cm. The distance between his horns is 18 cm. The entire animal but the horns is made through bas relieve. NOTE 1. Joussaume Cervicek , p. A summary was published by R. Joussaume in In this area the advent of the Rock Art in Prehistory was characterized by a style called Ethiopic- Arabic Cervicek , , Joussaume This Ethiopic-Arabic style is divided in two phases: the first called Surre from the site where it was discovered Surre or Genda-Biftou from the Ethiopic region of Harar and only found in south and east Ethiopia.

The second called Dahthami Anati from the name of a central Arabia area. Most of the Rock Art manifestations of South Ethiopia belong to this third phase. Naissances des agricultures, Paris, pp. Because of their location, the team had to set camp sites far away from villages or roads usable by land rovers.

Per questo motivo sono difficilmente raggiungibili e oggi sono poco note anche alle popolazioni locali. Su alcune alture immediatamente a ridosso delle muraglie sono evidenti varie tracce di Fig. From what is left is possible to assume that the wall was 2 meters and half in high and 2 meters in width.

The material used for the wall is volcanic rock cut in big blocks Fig. In the area surveyed, the team found five. One of them is a circular enclosure with 20 meters of diameter with inside a second circular enclosure of 8 meters of diameter looking like a small house protect antiche costruzioni circolari utilizzate come fortini di difesa e di avvistamento. Its diameter is 48 meters and the inside enclosure has a diameter of 22 meters Fig. The main village is called Bucchisa and is 20 km west of Yirga Chaffe.

It is not easy to get there without local guides. The head of the village volunteered to guide the team. The amount of stelae is impressive and in the village the locals made the walls for the school, using fragments of stelae Fig. A stele with an incision has been kept in the courtyard of the school Fig. Abbiamo potuto visitarne cinque gruppi e abbiamo avuto la segnalazione di almeno altri tre nelle vicinanze.

Numerose le stele che ancora risultano in posizione originaria Figg. Stupiscono le loro dimensioni che in alcuni casi superano i cinque metri di altezza fuori dal terreno, facendo supporre almeno altri due metri conficcati nel suolo. Alcune recano incisi segni solari e altri segni geometrici. The team checked just five groups of stelae but many more are all around.

Of all them the geographic position has been identified with the GPS. Many stelae are still in situ Figg. The incisions are usually geometric or solar symbols. After these sites, the team moved closer to the town of Dilla where there are two prehistoric sites, excavated by French archaeologists. Il primo si chiama Tuto Fela Fig. Le stele risultano molto concentrate in una unica area e ammontano a circa Il secondo sito si chiama Chelba-Tututi.

Moltissime giacciono al suolo e sono state utilizzate come terrapieni e basi per capanne Figg. Here the stelae are smaller but rich of engravings Fig. This site was documented in by Father Azais and studied after by the French archaeologist Roger Joussaume. The main concentration of stelae is in one area, the total number is The archaeological excavations under the stelae revealed more than a burials, all dat- ing between the 8th and the 11th century.

The second site is called Chelba-Tututi. Many of them fell on the floor or have been used as basement for the modern huts Figg. This site was documented in by the archaeologist Jhonsen and recently by Prof. The number of the stelae in this site is I maschi della famiglia si dedicano al reperimento e al trasporto delle materie prime, mentre le femmine svolgono tutte le fasi successive: sminuzzamento, setacciatura, impasto, modellatura, per giungere alla preparazione della fornace e alla cottura dei vasi.

Essi non possono possedere terre e debbono sopravvivere solo con il loro lavoro. In particular we have been following all the phases for the preparation of big containers for water with a hemispheric base This is one of the most common base shapes for pottery of different typology and dimension in this area.

The skill of pottery maker is exclusive of a few families for each tribe or social group and the knowledge is passed on from generation to generation since the beginning of time. In this particular area the men of the family have the duty of finding and carrying the raw material and the women are in charge of all the next steps of the production: grinding, sieving, kneading the clay, shaping the clay, preparing the kiln and finally cooking the pots.

They do not own the land so they have to survive with their craft. Viene estratta dal suolo della foresta sulle montagne dove rimangono evidente segni di escavazione Fig. The clay is extracted from the soil of the forest on top of the mountains where we can still see the signs of the excavation Fig. In uno spiazzo antistante la loro capanna la terra viene rovesciata e fatta asciugare al sole.

I vasai usano due tipi di terre: bokinta e charre bitta, la prima bianca e la seconda scura. Potters use two types of clay: bokinta white and charre bitta black. The wood is divided into two different sizes: one of cm diameter and the other one of a maximum of 2 cm of diameter.

The straws is another important element for the pottery production, it is really thin and long, transported in big bunches held together by other natural fibres. Viene utilizzato un robusto bastone Fig. Per ridurre una cesta di terra occorre una giornata di lavoro di una persona. Nel contempo vengono separati gli inclusi grossolani presenti nella terra.

Successivamente si procede alla vagliatura della terra mediante un setaccio realizzato in fibre vegetali Fig. They use a big wooden stick Fig. To beat down a full basket it takes each woman a full day. The second phase is to grind the clay using a big inclined stone Fig.

The third step is sieving the clay through a sieve made with natural fibres Fig. Batta - Grosso vaso usato per preparare la birra Kullia - Ciotola per dare il latte ai bimbi. Kerre - piatto. Ottuwa - Contenitore da fuoco.

Tokochwa - Fornello Fig. Tougga - Big pot for containing water. Yosamme - Pot for milking. Batta - Pot for brewing drinks. Kullia - Cup to give milk to children. Kerre - Plate. Ottuwa - Pot for cooking food. Tokochwa - Stove. They will work the mix for an hour and then they will put the mix protected with banana leaves and hemp in the shade Fig.

A hollow will be made with the hands in the centre of the lump, pushing and drawing up the sides of the hollow to make a cylinder. Da questo momento in poi le donne continueranno a ruotare intorno al vaso in costruzione, creando un effetto tornio e piegandosi con la schiena per lavorare con le mani fino a toccare il suolo. Un lavoro molto faticoso. Una prima finitura viene effettuata lisciando la superficie con un grande seme di liana, molto resistente e piatto.

Gli orli del collo e i cordoni sopraelevati della base del collo vengono realizzati con una pelle Fig. From this moment the women will keep rotating around the pot in construction, creating like a human wheel, bending over the pot, working with their hands.

It is a really hard job. Usually three fingers of the left hand are inside of the pot while the right hand is smoothing the outside, giving it the spherical shape. Adding some clay the women model the neck and lip of the pot Fig. The first polishing is made smoothing the external surface of the pot with a vine seed, which is strong and flat.

The line of the lips and the line between the neck and the shoulder of the pot are made with a lambskin rapidly rotated around the pot giving again a wheel effect. Praticamente un effetto tornio. A questo punto il manufatto viene lasciato asciugare per uno, due giorni in quella posizione Fig.

Una rifinitura viene eseguita rasando le eccedenze di creta sulle Fig. In this way the bottom part of the pot is completed in a spherical shape Fig. The base of the pot is completed inserting a hand inside from the top of the pot. Il vaso viene lasciato ad asciugare al sole per circa 15 giorni, avendo cura di non farlo bagnare da eventuali acquazzoni. The hot pieces of coal are collected with two sticks used like tweezers and put inside the pots, starting from the largest first.

Nel frattempo viene preparato con le fascine un grande letto circolare di circa 3 metri di diametro. They will be left in that position for half an hour and at that point they will be so hot that it would be impossible to handle them with bare hands Fig.

In the mean while a pile of branches, with a diameter of 3 metres will be prepared. Lungo il bordo del cerchio vengono accostati alcuni vecchi vasi rimasti lesionati durante le precedenti cotture e si procede poi Fig. At this point all the pots will be put in the circular pile, all empty of hot coals.

They will be arranged with the big ones in the centre of the circle and the small ones all around them. All around the branch bed the women will put the broken pots and then they will cover everything with straw until it is 30 cm Fig. Ore Inizio del fuoco. Ore 15,06 Fig. At this point is At The straw is lit and while the external part will burn really quickly, the internal part, because there is no oxygen, will burn really slowly.

Now the role of the old pottery maker is fundamental. She will go around the circular bonfire again and again putting dry straws where we can see the hot charcoals Fig. In doing this she will obtain a big black cupola that like in a kiln will produce a punti che mettono in evidenza il rosso della brace Fig.

A rafforzare tale principio vengono appoggiati sulla cupola alcune grandi frasche ricche di larghe foglie verdi che carbonizzandosi consolidano la parte superiore della cupola. I vasi lesionati disposti a terra lungo i margini del cerchio hanno probabilmente lo scopo di far penetrare un poco di ossigeno e favorire la combustione del letto di fascine.

Ore 15, To help the slow combustion, branches with large green leaves are put on top of the cupola. The broken vases around the edge probably let some oxygen get through and help the combustion as well. Unaltra mezzora e la paglia assume un colore grigio chiaro riducendosi di volume e facendo intravedere i vasi sottostanti. Anche le fascine si sono completamente consumate e la vasaia e battendo leggermente con il bastone ascolta i suoni prodotti dai vasi e ne verifica eventuali lesioni Fig.

Ore 16, I make moccasins all morning. At first my hands kept empty, unraveled for the lives they used to work. Now I learn to take them back, each angry finger that demands I mend what another will break tomorrow. Of course, I love you; you lean above the plastic sky, god of our block, prince of all the foxes. The breaking crowns are new that Jack wore. Your third eye moves among us and lights the separate boxes where we sleep or cry.

What large children we are here. All over I grow most tall in the best ward. Your business is people, JIT In piedi, in righe sfilacciate, aspettiamo che aprano le porte e ci contino davanti alle gelide inferriate della cena.

Arriva la parola magica e ci muoviamo verso il sugo nei nostri camici di sorrisi. Mastichiamo a ritmo, i piatti stridono e gemono come gessetti sulla lavagna. Non ci sono coltelli per tagliarsi la gola.

Io faccio mocassini tutta la mattina. Le prime volte le mani restavano inoperose, disfatte dalle vite per cui erano solite lavorare. Certo che ti amo; tu che ti affacci da un cielo di plastica, dio del nostro reparto, principe di tutte le volpi. Le corone rotte indossate da Jack sono rimesse a nuovo.

Il tuo terzo occhio vaga tra di noi e illumina le segregate scatole dove dormiamo o piangiamo. Che bambinone che siamo qui noi. Il tuo lavoro sono le persone, JIT Out in the hall the intercom pages you. You twist in the pull of the foxy children who fall like floods of life in frost. And we are magic talking to itself, noisy and alone. I am queen of all my sins forgotten.

Am I still lost? Once I was beautiful. Now I am myself, counting this row and that row of moccasins waiting on the silent shelf. Kind Sir: These Woods For a man needs only to be turned around once with his eyes shut in this world to be lost… Not til we are lost It was as if every pine tree were a brown pole we did not know; as if day had rearranged into night and bats flew in sun. O Mademoiselle, the rowboat rocked over. Then you were dead. Turn around once, eyes tight, the thought in your head.

Kind Sir: Lost and of your same kind I have turned around twice with my eyes sealed and the woods were white and my night mind saw such strange happenings, untold and unreal. Ti liberi dalle mani di bambine-volpi che cadono come fiotti di vita nel ghiaccio. E noi siamo magia che dialoga con se stessa, sola e a voce alta. Io sono la regina di tutti i miei peccati dimenticati.

Sono ancora persa? Un tempo ero bella. Oggi sono me stessa, mentre conto questa e quella fila di mocassini che aspettano sul silenzio dello scaffale. Era come se ogni pino fosse un palo bruno che non conoscevamo; come se il giorno si fosse fatto notte e i pipistrelli volassero nel sole.

Girare su se stessi una volta, a occhi chiusi, un pensiero [fisso in testa. Gentile Signore: Perduta e simile a te ho girato due volte su me stessa con gli occhi chiusi e i boschi erano pallidi e la mia mente notturna ha visto eventi strani, irreali e mai sentiti prima.

The Kite West Harwich, Massachusetts, Here, in front of the summer hotel the beach waits like an altar. We are lying on a cloth of sand while the Atlantic noon stains the world in light. It was much the same five years ago. I remember how Ezio Pinza was flying a kite for the children. None of us noticed it then.

The pleated lady was still a nest of her knitting. Four pouchy fellows kept their policy of gin and tonic while trading some money. The parasol girls slept, sun-sitting their lovely years. No one thought how precious it was, or even how funny the festival seemed, square rigged in the air. The air was a season they had bought, like the cloth of sand. I mean, it was different that time with Ezio Pinza flying a kite. Maybe, after all, he knew something more and was right.

Ci sdraiamo su un telo di sabbia mentre il meriggio atlantico macchia il mondo di luce. Pressappoco era lo stesso cinque anni fa. Ricordo Ezio Pinza che faceva volare un aquilone per i bambini. Nessuno ci aveva fatto caso allora.

Quattro tizi panciuti continuavano a ordinare gin and tonic mentre si scambiavano dei soldi. Voglio dire, era diverso allora con Ezio Pinza che faceva volare un aquilone. Words are like labels, or coins, or better, like swarming bees. I confess I am only broken by the sources of things; as if words were counted like dead bees in the attic, unbuckled from their yellow eyes and their dry wings.

I must always forget how one word is able to pick out another, to manner another, until I have got something I might have said Your business is watching my words. But I admit nothing. I work with my best, for instances, when I can write my praise for a nickel machine, that one night in Nevada: telling how the magic jackpot came clacking three bells out, over the lucky screen.

But if you should say this is something it is not, then I grow weak, remembering how my hands felt funny and ridiculous and crowded with all the believing money. Ma non ammetto nulla. The black room took us like a cave or a mouth or an indoor belly. I held my breath and daddy was there, his thumbs, his fat skull, his teeth, his hair growing like a field or a shawl. I lay by the moss of his skin until it grew strange.

My sisters will never know that I fall out of myself and pretend that Allah will not see how I hold my daddy like an old stone tree. Noon Walk on the Asylum Lawn The summer sun ray shifts through a suspicious tree. La stanza buia ci accolse come una caverna o una bocca o un ventre chiuso.

I hear green chanting all day. I will fear no evil, fear no evil The blades extend and reach my way. The sky breaks. It sags and breathes upon my face. There is no safe place. The Road Back The car is heavy with children tugged back from summer, swept out of their laughing beach, swept out while a persistent rumor tells them nothing ends.

Today we fret and pull on wheels, ignore our regular loss of time, count cows and others while the sun moves over like an old albatross we must not count nor kill. There is no word for time. Today we will not think to number another summer or watch its white bird into the ground.

Today, all cars, all fathers, all mothers, all children and lovers will have to forget about that thing in the sky, going around like a persistent rumor that will get us yet. Tutto il giorno sento il suo canto verde.

Il cielo si spezza. Oggi le macchine, i padri e le madri, i bambini e gli amanti dovranno scordarsi di quella cosa nel cielo, che gira e come un rumore persiste e alla fine ci prende. He is also seeking a publisher for two poetry collections that he has written, Country of Mongrel and No Depres- sion Music. Loscalzo is also the author of five books on ancient Greek lyric poetry and ancient Greek theater: La Nemea settimana di Pindaro Viterbo, , La parola inestinguibile.

Loscalzo contributes to the Italian poetry website www. His other books include compendia of cultural history such as What Are the Seven Wonders of the World? He also coauthored a collection of fifty essays on Italian civilization, Sprezzatura: 50 Ways Italian Ge- nius Shaped the World , which has been used as a college text, and has published numerous translations in JIT and other venues, including selected cantos of his verse translation of the Inferno.

Despite a host of glorious cultural achievements by which Italy continued serving as Magistra Artium to Europe, the Italian sixteenth century was also a melancholy era of foreign invasions and conquests that saw the duchy of Milan taken twice by the French and subsequently by Charles V, Naples become a Spanish viceroyalty, and Venice defeated by the League of Cambrai.

Enforced religious ortho- doxy was a major outcome of the Council of Trent, and its bible was the Index of Prohibited Books first compiled by Della Casa in Maybe my JIT There he was tortured six times with the strappado after being falsely accused of having joined a conspiracy against the return of Medici rule to Florence in In that same year, Michelangelo wrote a son- net on the martial papacy of Julius II, brimming with images of sacrilege, simony, and a violent and thoroughgoing avarice and materialism.

The titanic artist did not foresee any more commis- sions from Julius after his completion of the Sistine ceiling in , and indeed Julius died in the following year. Pietro Aretino was an assiduous contributor to Pasquino, and the two initial pasquinades below are attributed to him.

The first, a tailed sonnet, was posted during the conclave of , after the death of Leo X, and purports to explain why it was proving so difficult to choose a successor. The second refers to the burning at the stake for heresy of the Humanist and religious reformer Aonius Palearius Antonio Della Paglia in July during the reign of Pius V. In addition to his famed manual of manners, the Galateo, Giovanni Della Casa wrote a considerable amount of poetry, fashionably obscene in his youth and, as in the pair of sonnets here, movingly somber in later years.

Like Horace, Luigi Tansillo hailed from Venosa but established himself in Naples at an early age and became a prominent Neapolitan Petrarchist, as that tradition was modified by Pietro Bembo. His long poem in ottava rima, Il vendemmiatore , was placed on the Index of Prohibited Books by the above- mentioned Paul IV in for lewdness. These walls here harbor such enormous lice that, to me, they seem the size of butterflies; nor was there greater stench at Roncesvalles, or in the carrion pit outside of Florence, than in this dainty inn where I reside, whose noise is like when Jove unleashes lightning and Vulcan hammers anvils inside Etna.

Michelangelo Buonarroti Rome under the Warrior Pope, Julius II Here chalices are changed to swords and helmets, and the blood of Christ is sold in bucketfuls; the cross and thorns become lances and shields; and even so, his patience showers down. The reason is, that this one always keeps a wife nearby, and that one touches boys, and one pontificates on tasty morsels, another boasts of gluttony for peaches.

So that a way should be found to choose, outside the conclave, a good shepherd for inheriting the keys of St. O world in ruins, O misguided times, O specious hope, O vain and empty thought— the mighty Roman name lies in the dirt, surrendered as prey to barbarous furor. If no one quickly comes to vindicate this host of painful injuries we suffer, all those who honor you, Peter, are unjust. What shame like this has ever stained the pages of ancient or of modern history?

And thus the sun does wrong to shine today. To reason, sons, should not be your desire— The remedy for reason is the fire! Where is the silence that flees both day and light? Alas, in vain I call on you—in vain I flatter these cold, dark shadows.

O bed rife with bitterness! O cruel, painful nights! But more than you, I freeze outside and in, because my winter brings a crueler Eurus, [East Wind] a longer night, and colder, leaner days. Let things impossible be possible— since in just one day the green desire died that blossomed sixteen years within my mind.

Eilis has presented papers at numerous con- ferences around the world. Il dono Ada Negri published her book of lyric poetry Il dono1 in in the midst of political turmoil. She died in , shortly after the fall of fascism. The title of her collection refers to the gift of life that God has granted to all living organisms.

As in her earlier writing, some of her poems touch upon issues of social injustice, and in particular, poverty. However, her work primarily intertwines the themes of God, nature, and the afterlife. Her allusions to the afterlife suggest that she is preparing for her own death. Whereas in her previous poetry she expresses fear of the afterlife, it is a fate she faces with calm and curiosity in Il dono.

Fountains sing at crossroads chirping softly, high towers blur horizons, and, when my heart is heavy they sweep me up towards the clouds. They dart, swift, your alleys, and they intersect like a labyrinth, and upon the walls hang wisteria and honeysuckle, and from secret gardens, trees of lush foliage loom large.

From that greenery comes the fresh swishing of birds, a fragrance of flowers and fruits, a sense of untouched refuge, where life is unaware of tears and death. Much more becoming are beautiful gardens, if hidden. Everything appears more pleasing, if I see it in dreams. And for me it is enough to pass along walls warmed by the sun, to lose myself in your alleys that slither like snakes through verdure of secret gardens from a story, crimson Pavia, city of my solace. Autumn Rain Tonight I heard, between wake and slumber, a song soft, subdued, and yet vast as the vast world, and immersed in dream it seemed to me to sail in a boat without oars on a silvery sea, into a veil of rain.

It was rain, yes, but on a sea of lush foliage whispering in darkness of welcomed renewal. The first rainfall of autumn, after a scorching summer all feverish from the sun, and now it carries on in ashen sunrise, and each tree that receives it cries. But that cry is laughter, profound, unquenchable, of a woman JIT I would like, autumn rain, to be a leaf that soaks you into its fibers that join it to a branch, and the branch to a trunk, and the trunk to the earth, and through its veins you pass, and expand, and a great thirst you allay.

I know you announce winter, soon that leaf shall fall, the color of rust, and mix with mud, but it will nourish the roots of the trunk so to sprout again from branches in spring. I would like, autumn rain, to be a leaf, to lose myself in your downpour, certain that I will not die, that I will not die, that I will change only in form as the earth will have seasons, and a tree will have leaves.

I wonder which moon is real. Sky and lake create an open blush-blue shell that offers twin pearls to my enamoured eyes. Wings do not flit, wind does not whirl, nor do sails float by, or leaves of weeping willows shiver along shore. A single nightingale sings softly from a cypress tree, with a voice so pure that I think I have departed, and that this is the place where soul unites with absolution.

They were like the sky, almost ashen in the sun, and small, flying low over fields and flowerbeds, delicately flowing in unison, a dance from a dream. Who knows why, that year, endless steel-blue butterflies like your eyes? And were two of those wings, perhaps, not your eyes, locked behind long lashes?

And where are your eyes now, where are those azureous butterflies, and the air that I breathed warmly next to you? He spent two semesters in Bologna as an exchange student and three semesters in Brescia as an English teaching as- sistant docente madrelingua , as part of the Pacioli Site Program. Elio Fiore was born in Rome in During the Allied bombing of Rome, he and his mother were trapped beneath the rubble of their working class home in San Lorenzo for several hours before being rescued and hospitalized.

Three months later, living with his grandmother in Trastevere, Fiore witnessed the roundup of more than 1, Roman Jews. He started writing at a young age, winning a prize from Radio Italiana, at age His first collection, Dialoghi per non morire, was published in , receiving acclaim from Giuseppe Ungaretti and Carlo Levi.

Fiore was a close personal friend of Sibilla Aleramo, Camillo Sbarbaro, Eugenio Montale, and Mario Luzi, all of whom corresponded frequently with Fiore and held him in high esteem. After stints as a factory worker in North and South Italy, Fiore returned to Rome where he published numerous poetry collections while working at the International Fellowship of Reconciliation library. He passed away in In , Edizioni Ares published his Complete Works. Acre odore emana da lo stelo Acre odore emana da lo stelo dalla radice che non conosce vomero, la granadiglia matura di memorie; e non smette la saliva di concepire frutti di fugaci stagioni.

Che aspetti a morire? Ovunque, che io sappia da qualunque parte, dopo falciate nasce consacrato a Cerere, un lievito. Lontano andavi. Vicino a te, sento perfetta unione, concretarsi alla terra, agli uomini che amo, mia unica voce Dino, una chimera nuova. What are you waiting for to die? Everywhere, in every place I have been, after the scythe has passed a leaven sacred to Ceres is born. Is this supple wicker the haze in the banks of Us?

Second Dialogue: Aided by the Tuscan Sky Aided by the Tuscan sky in the spring of my life I go to Badia a Settimo to see what has become of that wandering fulvous poet: — cursed cherubim soothed by the weight of a gray stone — how my soul spreads wide secret words, intense in their love of prayer: I want to know if the music of my voice will be fulfilled. This cold engraved stone, its disenchanted reverberations carry me to the hermitage of torment: Mad Orpheus, Sibilla called you, delirious lover of Hyperborean lands and peoples, solitary and disheveled in a carriage, violet in eye and song, you went.

You were going far. Close to you, I feel a perfect union becoming concrete on earth, the people I love, Dino, the only voice I have, a new chimera. Corrose scale che sapete quante anime negli abissi dei secoli mi creano, in me non siete, nella salita, crescita di solitudine. Corroded steps, you know how many souls the abysses of the centuries have created in me. You are not in me, climbing growth of solitude. Tonight, memory becomes a new historical consciousness, and divinity is word validated.

My life — I think of unrest of conflict of blood in Jordan of horrific enmities — reader, may inspiration reach you safely in my early youthful verses, in the collection which we will make together: dialogues against death: here are all my possessions, the accent generated living water of my actions, agreements with reality.

Here is what everyone, in taking words in, knows JIT Le Murge Un giorno Le Murge, terra dura ondulata di sassi e sterpi, ondulata di mandorli tutta sole. Un fanciullo con le sue pecore andava: il sangue dei morti ricreava nel suo volto nuovo e lo sguardo disteso sulla terra, lo sguardo smuoveva nel sole i sassi gli sterpi i millenni di orrori.

Sono uomini, questi sono uomini, hanno radici gli ulivi fino al mare su questa terra ondulata ondulata di mandorli tutta sole. Those are men covered in black their nails are black they have their land — asphodels blossom pink, sepulchral — in the brookless sun, a tragic land root of olive trees. A child was walking with his sheep: the blood of the deceased recreating in his new face and his gaze stretched out over the earth, his gaze shifting in the sun boulders dry branches millennia of horrors.

His eyes were looking for joy in the sun. They are men, these are men the roots of olive trees reach the sea in this wavy earth waves of almond trees all sun. Dal monte al piano allegro scende il gregge e nelle piane, vivamente salutano i pastori il mandorlo in fiore: la geometria dei colori la memoria aiuta e la miseria, ricca di necessarie assurde emigrazioni. Aiuta la natura giudiziosa a maggio, gli arbitrari aridi sentieri tra le muricce, ossa gialle di luna piena.

Qui un viso modesto rammenta un limite oscuro, un silenzio del mare presente. Ha sui dialetti il silenzio, forza di animi disparati parole di occhi, termini sonnacchiosi, dolenti. Una matricola Un uomo timbra ogni giorno ogni giorno e sotto i colpi muore ogni giorno.

Mi chiede spiegazioni con ansia dice: Mi tremano i polsi, il sangue il sangue freme nelle vene! To walk among shadowy carobs sweet to the moon, among olive trees and the damp leftover hay in the stalls: is a lamp not, then, in the dark a sign? In ancient times, this gloomy earth infused a strange guilt in men, different, always conceived to centuries without reason: water was the only source, rare, the only revival. In the naked cemeteries they are used to listening — wherever the language of grain grows in plains conceived by the sea — to the minutest details of essences the faithful farmhands considered eternal.

From the hill to the joyful plane, the flock descends and in the plains, vivacious shepherds greet the almond tree in flower: the geometry of color comes to the aid of memory and misery, abundant in its [necessary absurd emigrations.

Judicious nature helps May along, the arid arbitrary paths between the crumbling walls, [yellow bones of the full moon. Here a modest face recalls a dark limit, a silence in the present sea. Silence has its dialects, strength of disparate souls, words of eyes, terms sleepy and doleful. Twenty-eighth Dialogue: A Serial Number A man punches in every day every day and beneath the blows he dies every day.

A powerful light is in his eyes a light, a truer job. In the cafeteria he eats hurriedly and, gauges the break. This young man opens a constant book, he listens and reads carefully, the verses of the Iliad. He asks me for explanations anxious he tells me: My wrists are shaking, my blood my blood is quaking in my veins!

Un uomo timbra ogni giorno ogni giorno e sotto i colpi muore ogni giorni. A man punches in every day every day and beneath the blows he dies every day. A powerful light is in his eyes. Thirtieth Dialogue: Ravenna Space the sky lightning the sun the moon wind the sea the earth fire hurricanes thrown down by harmonies of spheres. Bell towers sprout from underwater crypts and from the ancient sarcophagi another faith is revived.

Here the night the stars descend into us and the greenest pine grove spreads its needle choir. You walk in the dark streets, alone and, from the walls, so dear, shadows whisper immobile the love that moveth the sun and the other stars.

Edith Bruck, born Edith Steinschreiber, is a holocaust survivor whose adopted home is Italy. She was born in in Tiszabercel, Hungary. In she and her family, including her parents, her two brothers, and one of her sisters, were deported to Auschwitz. Edith and her sister Eliz survived and were liberated by the allies in She returned to Hungary and was reunited with her remain- ing family who had survived the war; from there she immigrated to Czechoslovakia.

When she was sixteen, together with other relatives, she immigrated to Israel. She was divorced for the third time by the age of twenty, and in she immigrated to Italy. She also met and married her fourth husband, the Italian poet and director Nelo Risi. Bruck narrates her childhood before her deportation and the continuing hostility of Europe toward the survivors, even after the war.

Bruck has published poetry, stories, novels, and articles, all in Italian, and has worked on several films as a director and screenwriter. She continues to live in Rome. Milano: Garzanti, Da Serie compleanno p. Da Neurosi pp. Milano: Garzanti, From Birthday Series p. From Neurosis pp. I nuovi comandamenti p. The New Commandments p. Tesio Udine: Campanotto, ; Controcielo, grotesque novel, preface by F. Brevini and note by A.

Serrao Milan: Scheiwiller, Spagnoletti e C. Vivaldi, eds. Milan: Garzanti, The poems printed here come from Controcore. This is a bastard child of a perennial world, unconscious victim of the she-wolf mother unnature? It does so via his inexhaustible inventions of turns-of-phrase and metaphors against a baroque backdrop that is, literally, black-and-blue.

Here, an endless neologistic and JIT This poetry plucks the strings of the ludic and the tender without languishing into mawkishness. Brevini, Le parole perdute, cit. Piga, La poesia dialettale del Novecento, cit. Brevini, in Nuovi Argomenti, 47 July-September Maffia, in La barriera semantica, cit. Si fa chiaro quel gran dolore che fa tremare. I cani allampanati hanno un andare sbilenco e incrociano gli umani sentieri.

Il vento viene da infinite leghe e si disperde al crocevia fino al momento del supremo andare che ci fa uomini. Night is gentle, limpid, no dreams. I set out alone to meet the broken dawn. The thought of the moon hovers and light flows in its nuances. The ghosts of things swarm, shades withdrawing from shadows of annunciation of day I revive in the fancy conjured by the world and who-knows.

Translated by Justin Vitiello Scattering The shaded sky sheds the moon. The pain that wracks us clarifies. Lean and hungry dogs weave, cross paths cut by hands. Wind rises from infinite compounds and scatters at the turning point, that moment of the supreme adventure that makes us human. Translated by Justin Vitiello The Cold That holy cold that dries your heart and the sudden frost, quick deep freeze of Bohemian droplets on the branches of the Pincio Wine and host in church and tavern JIT Il freddo.

La carne e il sangue fatti parola. La gloria e la fiacca. Flesh and blood become word. And us, bone-deep, passing through the needle-eye of super-starry heavens that go lunatic. The grass shivers in auroral chill He went to school in Gorizia and Pisino, in Istria, and after the war he got a degree in philosophy in Rome with Giovanni Gentile.

His first book, Fiuri de tapo is from , and La ghirlanda de gno suorecame out only ten years later. Yet rarely has a poet been as consistent with himself as Marin: one could change at will the date of publication and it would be difficult besides the external facts of his biography to establish the period of the writing, already mastered at the start, identical with itself in that relationship between self and landscape that characterizes every book and has made his work unique in Italian literature.

His poetry winds endlessly over a stretch of land inhabited by the wind and the seagulls, the tides and the light, the clouds and the smell of algae. If the tension towards the Absolute undergoes an acceleration, because of external factors and long meditations, the Heraclitean river inside him swells and widens, breaks the embankments and overflows, until it becomes liturgy, as Brevini says, until it turns poetry into JIT His poetry is a rumble that breaks into streams and every stream has its own path and subtle veins, rebounds and colors, but at a certain point the vari- ous branches go back to where they came, so that the magnificent immense tree keeps on producing but forbids the birds to use its branches, the wayfarer to enjoy its shade, the farmer to take its wood.

In , with the death of his only son, Falco, his horizons be- come open wounds and his gaze clouded Giotti too had similar sorrows , but in the end the power of the gulf wins out, the call of the abysses experienced as counterpoint, as the possibility of dying in order to find oneself intact in the circuit of beings purified and ready to sail again.

But even the sunlight that lifts up our spirit we must yet live, suffer and cherish. Be not afraid to go hungry and never drink the waters of life; the sun and sky are also water that never tires of the flowing. There is no stillness, no respite nor rest: each day just concluded rapidly fades in an hour. Then rejoice and be glad since all and nothing will pass, and may your steps travel light at each turn of the hour. Abruptly her melody covers the village with melancholy: her voice enchants every heart which now flows like pure crystals in this autumn sky.

He did his studies at Nicastro and Monteleone, two centers rich with humanistic culture. It complemented the Risorgimento and Garibaldian tradition that marked his national-popular development. He in- terrupted his studies for military service. Having emigrated to the U. In the U. In he moved from Brooklyn to Omaha Nebraska , and then to Chicago.

He died in Chicago on April 18, His marked interests for the legacy of the Risorgimento and Garibaldi, rooted in a humus genetically motivat- ed by socio-anthropological stimuli, contributed to turn into protest the post-Risorgimento disappointments; which, however, were expressed in formulas oscillating between lyric elegy and almost naturalistic attitudes of protesting representation. One seems to find in it and this is the best part the popular intonations of the storytellers of the time, which contributed to bring the region out of its isola- tion by drawing on a lymph with different manifestations in the South, especially between Naples and Palermo, and responsible for a healthy growth of dialect itself, which through that route found the impetus for an expressionistic experimentation capa- ble of achieving modern solutions even through contamination.

Falcone and A. Piromalli Soveria Mannelli, , who con- tribute two stimulating introductory essays on which cf. Reina,in Poetica, , Rocca Musa silvestre, ; then reedited by F. Costanzo, Rome Dante Maffia JIT His hair is really white, but he has dyed it with some kind of cream, and his pointed beard has been smoothed down and tarred on every side.

He is of the same height as was Napoleon but much more skilled, more able to be sure He had a lot of courage He showed great courage when he was a boy and went hunting for wolves all by himself deep in the woods or over a high cliff at ten he hunted brigands and destroyed them. Almost as if you had really mentioned a powerful magician, or the Ogre, because all the people here, dear reader, both good and bad see him as predestined. O brother, what a fig-pecker! She hurls flames from her eyes, worst than a cat; too bad she is a widow; but young girls in looks and grace cannot hold her hat.

O brother, what hocks this mare unfurls. Her hair is dark and thick, by all admired, and she has graceful breasts and lovely cheeks. I stalk and chase her, but she sneaks away. Her husband, having too often gone to Serrastretta, wasted away his life; he left her a mill, and his grieving wife has had to closed, because there is no one to work the hopper and let the water run. My little Brunette, should we make a pact? Thick forests, the most delightful verdure, green meadows Kiss the walls of the old house for me the log used as a stool before the fire, all the aunts, my dear uncle Luigi, night and day, a hundred times an hour.

When you hear the morning bell nearby, jump out of bed, open wide the balcony, greet the sun rising majestically from Cariglione towards the blue sky Oh, what a wonder was it to behold when he was young how many years ago? Sul versante italiano si ricordi che la prima edizione de I Sotterranei di Kerouac Feltrinelli, fu sequestrata dalla censura italiana.

Should I be good? A Venezia dal 10 luglio , poeta e traduttrice si erano incontrati: Era stato con noi a colazione e a cena anche Gregory Corso, JIT Masters da cui era rimasta folgorata, che si era messa subito a tradurre e che sarebbe uscita da Einaudi nel in piena guerra e censura fasciste. Felice di fare da padrino ad un libro einaudiano dal suc- cesso straordinario in Italia, Pavese evidenziava: la traduzione tutta pervasa di una gioia ingenua della scop- erta, che trascina e convince.

Generosa, indimenticabile Fernanda! Music: U. And the Wright brothers were long forgotten in the high- flying bombers that now began to visit their blessings on various Third Worlds all the while claiming they were searching for doves of peace And they kept flying and flying until they flew right into the 21st century and then one fine day a Third World struck back and stormed the great planes and flew them straight into the beating heart of Skyscraper America where there were no aviaries and no parliaments of doves and in a blinding flash America became a part of the scorched earth of the world And a wind of ashes blows across the land And for one long moment in eternity There is chaos and despair And buried loves and voices Cries and whispers Fill the air Everywhere vv.

La critica italiana come ha accompagnato la fortuna degli scrittori Beat dalle riviste accademiche o dalle pagine culturali dei quo- tidiani? Si teme per la sorte di qualche mal- capitato che dormiva di sotto, ma fortunatamente tutto si conclude con molto spavento e qualche lieve ferita.

Come definire questo stile? Diciamo uno stile beckettiano-futurista, intendendo per beckettiano il lato desolante-contemplativo e per futurista il lato vitalistico- turbolento Si enumerano: la vicinanza con la lezione del fratello maggiore W. Il non breve saggio di Valesio rivela una evidente pregiudiziale da turris eburnea accademica unita ad altre osservazioni a dir poco discutibili.

Si JIT Kerouac fu il primo ad andarsene, per cirrosi epatica, nel Fernanda Pivano, Diari [], a c. I, Milano: Bompiani, , p. Barberis e L. Carra, Milano: Il Saggiatore, Diari, Op. Cordelli, Op. Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Greatest Poems, A c.

Allen Ginsberg, Poesie , A c. Some of his short stories have appeared in the major Italian literary revue Nuovi Argomenti as well as in the journal Il primo amore, ed- ited by Antonio Moresco and Tiziano Scarpa. His debut collection of short-stories, Le radici del mare, was published in by Italic Pequod and was very well received by critics and readers alike.

His second collection of short-stories, entitled Terre emerse, came out earlier this year and has already attracted praise from critics and readers alike. Leonardo is currently working on his first col- lection of poems as well as translating poems by Emily Dickinson, Seamus Heaney, Dylan Thomas among others. Edgar Allan Poe — was an American short-story writer, poet, critic, and editor who is famous for his cultivation of mystery and the macabre. His tale The Murders in the Rue Morgue initiated the modern detective story, and the atmosphere in his tales of horror is unrivaled in American fiction.

His poem The Raven numbers among the best-known poems in the national literature adapted from www. An angel throng, bewinged, bedight In veils, and drowned in tears, Sit in a theatre, to see A play of hopes and fears, While the orchestra breathes fitfully The music of the spheres. Mimes, in the form of God on high, Mutter and mumble low, And hither and thither fly— Mere puppets they, who come and go At bidding of vast formless things That shift the scenery to and fro, Flapping from out their Condor wings Invisible Wo!

That motley drama—oh, be sure It shall not be forgot! With its Phantom chased for evermore By a crowd that seize it not, Through a circle that ever returneth in To the self-same spot, And much of Madness, and more of Sin, And Horror the soul of the plot. But see, amid the mimic rout, A crawling shape intrude! A blood-red thing that writhes from out The scenic solitude! It writhes!

Out—out are the lights—out all! And, over each quivering form, The curtain, a funeral pall, Comes down with the rush of a storm, JIT Si torce! Tra spasmi mortali i mimi diventano il suo cibo, piangono i serafini mentre affonda i denti nella polpa umana. Spente, spente le luci! E su ogni forma tremula il sipario, orma funerea, si abbassa con fragore di tempesta, JIT On desperate seas long wont to roam, Thy hyacinth hair, thy classic face, Thy Naiad airs have brought me home To the glory that was Greece, And the grandeur that was Rome.

Ah, Psyche, from the regions which Are Holy-Land! Annabel Lee It was many and many a year ago, In a kingdom by the sea, That a maiden there lived whom you may know By the name of Annabel Lee; And this maiden she lived with no other thought Than to love and be loved by me. Ah, Psiche, da regioni che sono Terra Santa!

The angels, not half so happy in Heaven, Went envying her and me— Yes! But our love it was stronger by far than the love Of those who were older than we— Of many far wiser than we— And neither the angels in Heaven above Nor the demons down under the sea Can ever dissever my soul from the soul Of the beautiful Annabel Lee; For the moon never beams, without bringing me dreams Of the beautiful Annabel Lee; And the stars never rise, but I feel the bright eyes Of the beautiful Annabel Lee; And so, all the night-tide, I lie down by the side Of my darling—my darling—my life and my bride, In her sepulchre there by the sea— In her tomb by the sounding sea.

Leonardo Guzzo is a writer, translator, critic and journalist. Some of his short stories have appeared in the major Italian literary revue Nuovi Ar- gomenti as well as in the journal Il primo amore, edited by Antonio Moresco and Tiziano Scarpa. His second collec- tion of short-stories, entitled Terre emerse, came out earlier this year and has already attracted praise from critics and readers alike. Leonardo is currently working on his first collection of poems as well as translating poems by Emily Dickinson, Seamus Heaney, Dylan Thomas among others.

Her scholarly and creative writing explore contemporary literature with a particular focus on poetry. Gli sembrava di aver agganciato le fondamenta della terra. E che pesca meravigliosa, Dio che pesca miracolosa doveva essere. Non credeva davvero di incontrarla in quel posto.

Il salto creava una specie di mulinello. La marea smetteva di avanzare frontalmente e si espandeva seguendo un moto circo- lare. E profondissima. Se non poteva andare lontano cercava almeno di andare a fondo. Era andato anche quel giorno. Senza scrutare i segni, come fanno di solito gli uomini di mare. Senza darsi uno di quegli appun- JIT He held his footing, as a good fisherman does, as a grown-up man does who has seen it all.

He stayed on his feet and knew that he was close to landing the catch of his life. One moment, he took off the mantle of misfortune and the next he was full of pride. Its jet black eyes glowed like live coals and its hooked nose gleamed like the beak of a bird of prey. He felt like he had hooked into the foundations of the earth. And what a marvelous catch, God what a miraculous catch it must be. The spirit of resistance and the tempo of the movements made it very clear.

The reel whirred frantically as the line ran down to the depths of the sea, unraveling almost to the end of the roll. And then it stopped and suddenly became taut, splashing drops of water in the air. He had not expected to meet it in that place.

Then nor ever, that wonder. Not there, at his home. But he was ready to swear, on what he held most dear, that the place was magical. It was no more than ten meters from the coast. It was not hid- den, the way all magical places are. Nobody knew it was there, where the bay meets the open sea, a little further in, as soon as the tide lines appeared on the blurry mirror of the water. Where the waters met, a sort of whirlpool created. The tide lines stopped advancing and began following a circular movement.

The water seemed dense and stagnant, yet it was just murky. And incredibly deep. They called that place salt-marsh a strange intersection of sea and swamp. Without knowing that it hid, straight and sure, a path to the ancient depths of the sea bed. Nobody knew, except for the man, who had kept his trabucco there and explored that stretch of water, inch by inch, free diving.

When he could not go far, he tried at least to go deep. He had gone out that morning as well, without reading the signs of the sea like fishermen usually do. Without making a firm appointment with luck. Without longing for escape JIT Senza agognare fughe e inseguimenti. Senza tendere trappole e figurarsi nella mente, per ragionamento, le vie invisibili del mare. Solo per sfida e per istinto. Per smania. E nemmeno si ricordava quando cose minuscole gli sem- bravano vastissime. E non cercava nulla, tutto sommato, non si aspettava niente di speciale.

Cose da scrivere con la maiuscola, questo voleva tirare a galla, un briciolo di meraviglia infantile nella pancia della sua preda. Sapeva quello che voleva, nulla di speciale, e lo voleva ormai da molto tempo. Voleva prendere qualcosa di grosso e bello e ritrovare, per una volta, il ritmo e da quella pesca si aspettava tutte le risposte.

Per questo, malgrado lo sforzo, teneva duro. Lavorava da schi- avo ma non stillava una goccia di fatica. Dopotutto stava tirando a galla un universo. Intero e strabiliante, un universo sottomarino. Una volta si sarebbe detto che era anziano, adesso forse che era ancora nel fiore degli anni. Fluttuando alla deriva si era perso la sua anima. E adesso viveva per riaverla indietro. Fin dal principio viaggiava verso la fine.

Brancolava nel buio e non sospettava la luce. Una musica lontana, come una ninna nanna, era il brusio di mondi e atomi sulla sua testa. Saliva regolare, a un ritmo costante che doveva sembrarle impercettibile. Just for the challenge and out of instinct. An urge. As if grasping wearily at the last chance of fate.

For a long time, too long and who knew how long exactly, he had lost his rhythm. Nor did he ever recall small things seem- ing so vast. He knew what he wanted — nothing much — and he had wanted it for some time now. He wanted to catch something big and beautiful and to retrieve, for once, the rhythm, and he hoped that catch would give him all the answers. For this reason, despite the strain, he held on.

He slaved away but he did not exude one single drop of fatigue. The whole thing seemed incomprehensible. After all, he was fishing up a world, a completely extraordinary underwater universe. He pulled with all the force of his inscrutable age. Once you would have said he was elderly; now that he probably was still in his prime. For this it seemed even crueler that fate had taken away everything around him. One by one, the supports and the footholds had been torn from his hands and from under his feet, until he was left alone.

Like a shadowy, still sea where anything could be friend or foe and any direction could be the wrong one. Floating adrift, he had lost his soul. He left it attached to some- thing and now he lived to retrieve it. Down in the abyss the prey revived and began its journey. Right from the start it travelled towards its end. Its slick and iridescent skin was an intricate patchwork of scales, peduncles and filaments. It floated softly, lying in the dark waters.

It groped about in the dark and did not suspect the light. A far-off music, like a lullaby — the soft buzz of worlds and atoms above its head. The huge body, shaped by freedom, knew no obstacle. It re- mained a good while, at least a couple of hours, deep down in the ocean. Then it rose at a slow and constant pace, almost impercep- tibly. It barely felt time passing by.

It rose, lightheartedly, with JIT Saliva solo, allegramente, tenendo il passo dei suoi sogni. Tutti li teneva, uniti dal collante meraviglioso di non sognarli. Tenerli stretti senza esserne cosciente. Ora la preda si muoveva diversamente da come si era mossa prima.

Il corpo enorme faceva i conti con gli intralci del fondale. Cunicoli e strettoie, banchi di finto corallo e concrezioni sottoma- rine pretendevano che abbandonasse tutto quello che non poteva proseguire. E tutto il superfluo, bellissimo e inconsistente, si stac- cava per tornare a fondo, come una variopinta scia di detriti. Man mano che saliva la preda si spogliava dei suoi strati, si sfogliava. Le punte de- gli scogli intaccavano gli orli del suo universo.

E le incertezze. E i desideri. La preda smaniava. Nella risalita incontrava anemoni e ciclidi, molluschi e pesci corallini che diventavano poco a poco presenze familiari, come compagni di viaggio. Era attratta dai loro colori sgargianti, dalla promessa di un destino che non era il suo, e ne avrebbe seguito volentieri il percorso. Le traiettorie invisibili e precise o la placida deriva. Ma aveva la sua risalita. Doveva tornare al suo padrone, adesso.

Ma non era una resa da schiavo, un sacrificio senza ricompensa. Poteva restarsene tranquilla sul fondo altri secoli e non avrebbe mai vissuto. Era preda e di preda doveva fare il mestiere. Nel viaggio, e solo in quello, era la sua ragione di esistere. It kept all of them together by not dreaming of them; it held them close unconsciously. So, unaware, the prey was one with his dreams. Then it broke away.

Slowly, the layer of solid darkness became muddied with reflections, confused emanations from a remote beyond. The life that quivered above it, past the surface barrier of the water, became a distinct possibility. Now the prey began to move in a different way from before. Its huge body faced the obstacles on the seabed. Tunnels and bot- tlenecks, fake coral banks, underwater formations demanded that anything that could not follow must to be left behind. And all that was superfluous, beautiful and insubstantial, broke loose and drifted down to the seabed, in a colourful trail of debris.

As it rose, the prey gradually shed its layers and peeled away. Its eyes which had been accustomed to the eternal darkness became incredibly small, gobbled up by the light. The tips of the rocks eroded the edge of its universe. Its uncertainties.

And its desires. The prey went into a frenzy. In the ascent it encountered anemones and cichlids, mollusks and coral fish that slowly became a familiar presence, like traveling companions. It was attracted to their bright colors, to the promise of a destiny that was not its own; it would have gladly followed their paths.

The precise invisible seaways or the calm drift. But it had to rise up. It had to return to its master, to the place it belonged, and all the waiting until that moment, the thoughtless slumber of centuries, had been merely a rehearsal. It had to return to its master now. Alongside the pain it felt a vague sort of happiness, the joy of a weight that was gradually being lifted.

It could have peacefully remained on the seabed for many centuries yet it would have never lived. It was a prey and as a prey it had a job to do. Take the bait, be caught and make that long journey upward. That journey, and only that, was its reason for existence. Ma qualcosa dalle prime ore del mattino era diverso. Lo scenario della pesca portentosa era cambiato. Faceva caldo e il sole batteva sulla nuca e scottava. Ora sentiva che quel giorno era prescritto, se ne rendeva conto.

Qualcosa in quel posto doveva per forza accadere. Come lo sentisse non era possibile capirlo. Si poteva intuire, ma non era affare di comprensione logica. Lo sentiva, ecco tutto. Glielo diceva in segreto il mare. Colori, movimenti, umori

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